Skip to main content

Full text of "The assassination of Abraham Lincoln"

See other formats



3 70 

o ■ 

> • 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Friends of the Lincoln Financial Collection in Indiana 

The Assassination of 
Abraham Lincoln 

Dr. Richard D. Mudd 
and Mudd Descendants 

Excerpts from newspapers and other 


From the files of the 
Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection 


Samuel Mudd's Heirs May 
Get Payment From U. S. 

Hope was held out last week to the 
heirs of the late Dr. Samuel Mudd, of 
Southern Maryland, who set John 
Wilkes Booth's leg after the assassina- 
tion of President Lincoln, that they 
may receive some payment from the 
United States for losses suffered by 
their ancestor 71 years ago, says the 
Baltimore Sun. 

Senator Schall, of Minnesota, is 
willing to introduce and champion a 
hill to pay $200,000 to Dr. Mudd's heirs 
as requested by a Samuel Mudd, of 
St. Paul, Minn. This Mr. Mudd wrote 
Senator Tydings, of Maryland, setting 
forth the basis for the claims, but did 
not state his relationship to the South- 
ern Maryland physician nor Identify 
other heirs. 

Tydings referred him to the Senators 
from his own State, Schall and Ship- 
stead, and promised cooperation in any 
action they might take. 

Neither Senator Shlpstead nor Sen- 
ator Schall had heard the story until 
last week. 

"Very interesting," was the comment 
of Senator Shlpstead. 

"On the basis of that story," com- 
mented Senator Schall, "I am inclined 
to think the heirs should have the 
appropriation. If I am asked by Mr. 
Mudd to introduce the bill, I shall be 
glad to do bo." 

Living Members Of Mudd Family. 

Members of the Mudd family now 
living in the State were unable to 
identify the Samuel Mudd ,of St. Paul. 
They said, however, the living de- 
scendants of Dr. Mudd, so far as known 
here, are: 

Mrs. Lillian Mudd Gardiner, Mrs. 
William J. Neale, her daughter; Miss 
Carmalite Mudd, daughter of the late 
Samuel Mudd, jr.; Mrs. John Frere, 
her sister; Joseph Mudd, her brother; 
Mrs. Enie Mudd Gardiner, Mies Stella 
Mudd, now Sister Rosamundi, of the 
Order of Holy Cross; Mrs. Nettle Mudd 
Monroe, Edwin Mudd; Richard Mudd, 
son of Dr. Thomas Mudd, a son of Dr. 
Samuel Mudd; Paul Mudd, his brother; 
Robert Mudd, his brother; Miss Stella 
Mudd, his sicter. 

The late Sydney E. Mudd and his 
son, Sydney E., Jr., also deceased, both 
of whom served in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, were members of a col- 
lateral branch. Thomas B. R. Mudd, 
of Charles County, former Immigra- 
tion Commissioner, is a son of Syd- 
ney, sr. 

John A. Mudd, a member of the 
Racing Commission, is a member of 
yet another branch of the family. 

Briefly the basis of the claim against 
the Government is: 

On April 15, 1865, Dr. Mudd was 
called upon to set the leg of a man 
who came to a woods near his estate, 
Gallant Green, not knowing at the 
time, he always claimed, that hia pa- 

tient was John Wilkes Booth, who the 
night before had fatally shot Abra- 
ham Lincoln and suffered his injury 
when he fell to the stage of Ford's 

Soon the entire Nation knew the 
Identity of Dr. Mudd's patient, for 
Federal troops trailed Booth to the 
physician's estate, and upon learning 
that the man 'they chased had been 
treated there arrested the doctor as an 
accomplice. v 

It was then, the claim set forth, that 
troopers burned or otherwise destroyed 
the Mudd estate. Taken before a court- 
martial, Dr. Mudd was sentenced to 
prison for life and was removed to 
the Federal penal institution of Dry 
Tortugas, an island off the coast of 
Florida, to serve his sentence. 

While a prisoner there, the health 
officer died of yellow fever and Dr. 
Mudd was called upon to check the 
epidemic. His success in overcoming 
the fever later led President Andrew 
Johnson to pardon him in 1868. 

In 1877 a bill was introduced in Con 
gress providing for a remuneration of 
$3,000 for the doctor's service at Dry 
Tortugas. Referred to the Committee 
on Claims of the House of Representa- 
tives t it never, as far as is known, 
was reported out. 


The shades of night had fallen down 
Around about the roaring town; 
But, judging by the mazdas bright 
Which everywhere burst on the sight, 
And gay crowds tripping to and fro 
With pockets full of yen to blow. 
One might have thought that it was 

And time to hit the Greasy Spoon. 

But, not far from this wliirling hub, 
Upon a side street, slunk a dub 
Where shadows took the place of light; 
And he was what is called a sight! 
His coat was thin, his shoes worn out; 
And hot dogs, mash or slate and kraut 
Had not passed down his aching throat 
It seemed — since Noah built his boat. 

Dejected, hopeless, cold, he tramped, 
About his form his old belt clamped 
Until his stomach rubbed his spine — 
Yet he was not a man to whine! 
He only wondered at it all. 
For he had heard his country's call 
And answered — in its tame of need 
That others from distress he freed! 

He ought to have his pension back, 
So he could buy a little snack — 
A pork chop or a streaming stew, 
A warm coat and some thick shoes, too. 
This man's affaars are in a mess! 
He is the one now in distress! 
It seems somebody should wake up 
And take from him this bitter cup! 
— Elldee, in the Columbus, Ohio, 

^SuiiFoY $50,000 Recalls 

Assassination Of Lincoln 

Damages Sought Fo^Ue^Vrongful Conversion 

Of Properly Onee Owned By Dr. Mudd, Who 

Set Booth's Broken Leg 

Suit asking ?50,r.O0 damages for the 
alleged wrongful conversion of pic- 
tures and other property formerly be- 
longing to Dr. Samuel A. Mudd 
IsUhern Marylrnd physkian who set 
the broken leg of John Wukes Booth 
the day after the assassination of 
President Lincoln, was filed yesterday! 
fn the Superio- Court by the doctors 
daughter, Mrs. Nettie Mudd Monroe. 

The action vas against the execu- 
tors of the estate of Michael Schloss, 
wholesale clc hing manufacturer, who 
died last October. 

Tne suit charges Mr. Schloss with 
having converted to his own use and 
deprived the plaintiff of the following 

Eight pictures of Dry Tortugas prison 
taken in 1898 by Samuel Arnold. 
Four pictures of the residence of Dr 
Mudd showing the front and back 
views and the parlor and bedroom 
occupied by Booth while at the 
One of Mrs. Mudd. 
One of Dr. Mudd. 
Two of the jury which tried the 

alleged Lincoln conspirators. 
One of Gen. Thomas Ewing, a law- 
yer? who defended Dr. Mudd at 
his trial. 
One of General Sherman. 
One of Mrs. Mary Surratt one of 
the four condemned to die as a 
result of the Lincoln assassination. 
One of the Old Capital Prison at 

One of Ford's Opera House. 
One inlaid table made by Dr. Mudd. 
One sofa on which Booth lay while 
Dr. Mudd set his leg. Also three 
other pictures. 
Following a trial before a military 
commission in 1865, Dr. Mudd, Samuel 
Arnold and another man were sen- 
tenced to life imprisonment at Dry 
Tortugas, a Federal prison off the 
coast of Florida. Four others found 
guilty of having been connected with 
the assassination were sentenced to 
die After serving four years in prison, 
in which time he was called on to 
check an epidemic of yellow fever 
which broke out at the prison, Dr. 
Mudd was pardoned by President An- 
drew Johnson. . , 

The pictures and articles for which 
Mrs. Monroe seeks damages were 
given to Mr. Schloss to sell several 
years ago, according to William H. 
Lawrence, the plaintiff's attorney .Mrs 
.Monroe was employed by Schloss 
firm, he added. 
| However, on Mr. Sch loss death 

— 7onhisexecu-lcolm J. Coan also is the plaintiff. 

£r£T ™ d ^ P :y counsel with M, Lawrence. 

tors possessions, mi. j-^ 

tutors of the Schloss estate 
named as defendants in the suit which 
asTs that the case be tried before a 
wv are Monroe H. Schloss, Julius, 
] E Schloss and irvin A. Schloss. Mai-, 

\Asks Exhumation 
Of Lincoln Assassir* 

Surgeon Seeking to Clear 
Kin in Booth's Escape 

WASHINGTON, Sept. 20 (/P).— 
The grandson of a physician sen- 
tensed to life imprisonment after — - 
his conviction of aiding in the es- 
cape of Abraham Lincoln's as- 
Isassin in 1865 wants to reopen the 

Col. Richard D. Mudd, an Air 
Force surgeon, said last night he [j 
believes the body of John Wilkes 
Booth should be taken from its 
Baltimore grave to determine 
which of Booth's legs was broken. 

A major bit of evidence at the 
court martial which convicted his 
grandfather, Dr. Samuel A. Mudd, 
was a left-foot riding boot, slashed 
down the side and with the letter- 
ing "J. Wilkes" written inside. 

Col. Mudd says his grandfather 
—who was pardoned by President 
Johnson in 1869- -never was asked 
at the trial which of Booth's legs 
he set on Booth's flight. 

However, the officer says, when 
Booth was reburied in Baltimore 
in 1869 a newspaper reporter cov- 
ering the burial noted it was the 
right leg that had been fractured. 

If it was Booth's right leg that 
was broken, Col Mudd said in an 
address to the Columbia Historical 
Society, the slit-open left boot at 
his grandfather's trial constituted 
conflicting rather than convicting 


i i 

22-A / THE MIAMI HERALD Sunda/ Jan. 9. 1955 / 

Dr. Mudd's Kin to Tell Story 
Of Lincoln's Assassination 

to prison because of the assassi 
nation of Abraham Lincoln but be- 
came a national hero while in- 
carcerated, will be related to a 

Jan. 17 

It will be the story of Dr. Sam- 
uel A. Mudd, told by his grand 
son, Col. Richard D. Mudd. 

.%.!^kJ?J^5^ h ?_^^ The Historical Association of 

South Florida believes this will 
be one of the most interesting 
talks it has sponsored. 

Col. Mudd will speak in the 
Coral Gables Senior High School 
auditorium. Bird rd. at LeJeune 

The meeting will be open to 
the public without charge, Jus- 
tin P. Havee, program chair- 
man, said. 

President Lincoln was shot on 
the night of April 14, 1865, by 
John Wilkes Booth, who broke a 
leg as he jumped from the Pres- 
ident's theater box to the stage. 

Early the next morning, Booth 
and a companion awakened Dr. 
Samuel A. Mudd in his southern 
Maryland home, and the doctor 
treated Booth's leg. 

He was sentenced to life im- 
prisonment by a military court 
and was confined at Fort Jeffer- 
son, in the Gulf of Mexico, 60 
miles west of Key West. 


• < . speaks lo historical group 

Dr. Mudd was a prisoner from 
July 25, 1865, until March, 1869, 
when he was pardoned by Pres- 
ident Andrew Johnson. While 
in the prison, he was put in 
charge of treatment of prison- 
ers, soldiers and their families, 
during a yellow fever epidem- 
ic that killed many. He was 
credited with saying dozens of 

Mudd died Jan. 19, 1SS3. 
His grandson, a physicial him- 
self, has made a lifetime study 

of the Mudd family and particu- 
larly of the role played in his- 
tory by his grandfather. 

In his £alk here.^to be illus- 
trated by slides, he will relate 
little known facts concerning the 
assassination of Lincoln and will 
discuss in detail his grandfather's 

Col. Mudd visited Fort Jeffer- 
son, which now is a national 
monument, in June, 1947. 

Dan Beard, co-ordinating super- 
intendent, and J. R. DeWeese, su- 
perintendent of Fort Jefferson Na 
tional Monument, will be guesti 
of the historical society at the 

Copies of an illustrated Nation- 
al Park Service booklet on Fort 
Jefferson will be given to those 
attending the program, as long as 
the supply lasts, Havee said. 

News.— News Photo. . - 


One of the 300 who attended the 24th annual Lincoln 
Day Dinner at the Central Woodward Christian Church last 
night was Dr. Richard Dyer Mudd, of Saginaw. 

He is the grandson of Dr. Samuel Mudd, the Washing- 
ton physician who treated John Wilkes Booth immediately 
after Booth shot the Civil War president. 

Booth was injured escaping from the theater. Even 
though Dr. Mudd did not know at the time that the president 
had been shot, he was imprisoned for many years on one 
of the Florida keys. 

The present day Dr. Mudd, a native of Washington, in- 
terned at Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, and then took up 
! private practice in Saginaw. 

' - J. ■••■ ,J ... I ' 

















-t^jL ^/^cx. CrU^ 






A, ^ -TU^^t- ^^ 

/tfc&HtoUj w£ 

its. Samuel 


&■£&* % - & 

Mrs. Samuel Alexatider 
Mudd, jr., 85, daughter-in-law 
of the physician who set John 
Wilkes Booth's leg after the 
actor shot Abraham Lincoln, 
died Friday in Bon Secours 
Hospital in Baltimore. 

Mrs. Mudd had been hos- 
pitalized since a stroke on 
Thanksgiving Day. 

Until recent years, she lived 
at the family home in Waldorf, 
Charles County, Md., where Dr. 
Mudd died. 

Mrs. Mudd was remembered 
for -her unfailing courtesy to 
the many historians and tour- 
ists who came to see the seven- 
room frame house where Booth 
sought help after the assassina- 
tion of President Lincoln on 
April 14, 1365. 

She became an authority on 
the subject and often was 
a.?keci to check articles being 
developed on Dr. Mudd's role in 
the event. 

Felt Duty-Bound 

Mrs. Mudd did not regard 
visits nor requests for infor- 
mation as invasions of her pri- 
vacy. It was her duty to help 
those interested, she said, for 


(the event was part of the 
country's history. 

Mrs. Mudd's husband, a 
farmer, died many years ago. 
All of Dr. Mudd's seven chil- 
dren are dead, and Mrs. Mudd 
was the last of his children-in- 
law to survive. 

Bornin Bryantown, Md., she_ 
was the former Claudine Lou-! 
ise Burch. In recent years, 1 
her son, Joseph B. Mudd, took 
over the family home and the 
farm of more than 200 acres. 

6 Daughters 

Besides her son, Mrs. Mudd 
leaves six daughters, Mrs. 'M.- 
Phyllis Frerc of Tompkmsville, 
Md.; Mrs. Christine E. Clem- 
ents, of Newport, Md.; Mrs. 
Emily T. Rogerson of Rich- 
mond; Mrs. M. Carmelite 
Summers of- 3613 Twenty- 
sixth street N.E.; Sister Mary 
Samuela of Norfolk, and Mrs. 
C. Louise Cox of La Plata. 

Also surviving are 35 grand- 
children, 38 great-grandchil- 
dren, and a sister, Sister Mary 
Carmel of Baltimore. 

A requiem mass will be of- 
fered in St. Peter's Roman 
Catholic Church in Waldorf at 
11 a.m. tomorrow. Burial will' 
be in the church cemetery. 


Volume XXII, Number 8 

Chicago, Illinois 

April, 1962 

Grandson to Tell Story of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd - Wednesday, April 11 

Dr. Richard D. Mudd 

Dr. Richard Dyer Mudd will be with us Wednesday, 
April 11, to tell the story of his grandfather, Dr. 
Samuel Alexander Mudd, who treat- 
ed John Wilkes Booth's fractured 
leg the night of President Lincoln's 
assassination and was imprisoned 
for it. 

Richard Mudd has been a busy 
physician, but also has devoted a 
lifetime in an effort to gain ex- 
oneration of his grandfather. 

Early the morning of April 15, 
1865, two men rapped on the door 
of Samuel Mudd's house near 
Bryantown, Md., saying they were 
travelers en route to Washington and that one had fallen 
from his horse and broken a leg. At that time Dr. 
Mudd was more of a farmer than a physician and lacked 
equipment for expert medical care. He made a splint 
and advised his patient to see an active physician upon 
reaching Washington. Physicians have called it a simple 
doctor-patient relationship. 

In the search for Lincoln's assassin Dr. Mudd was 
linked with those who were seized and tried as con- 
spirators. Four were hanged. Dr. Mudd was sentenced 
to imprisonment at Fort Jefferson on Garden Key, Dry 
Tortugas islands, about 60 miles off Key West, Fla. 
While there, yellow fever broke out. The prison phy- 
sician being ill, Dr. Mudd was let out of his dungeon 
and valiantly fought the epidemic. One measure was 
placing the patients on the downwind side of the island. 
This blew away the mosquitoes and if he had realized 
the meaning of it, he might have had the answer to yel- 
low fever years before Dr. Walter Reed. 

Guards and prisoners all signed a petition for pardon 
for Dr. Mudd. One petition was pigeonholed on the is- 
land, but another was smuggled out and President 
Andrew Johnson honored it. Dr. Mudd was released on 
March 8, 1869, after four years' imprisonment. He 
died in 1883 at 49. His descendants are many. 

President Johnson's pardon freed Dr. Mudd, but did 
not exonerate him. Congress in 1959 approved a monu- 
ment which has been set up at Fort Jefferson attesting 
to Dr. Mudd's efforts against yellow fever, but still did 
not exonerate him. That is the crusade that his grand- 
son, Richard Mudd, is carrying on. 

Richard Mudd has spoken in many places on the 
subject and here he will give many more details than 
there are in this brief summary. 

Our speaker was born in the Anacostia district of 
Washington D. C. and took his degrees at Georgetown 
University, also doing some teaching there and some 
hospital externe work in the city. He did his internship 
at Henry Ford hospital in Detroit. He turned to in- 
dustrial medicine and has spent the years since 1928 
with various branches of General Motors, mostly at 
Saginaw, Mich., his present home. 




* * * 

Dr. Richard Dyer Mudd 


"The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln and the 
Trial and Imprisonment of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd" 

* * * 

St. Clair Hotel 

162 East Ohio Street 

Cocktails at 5:30 
Dinner at 6:30 p.m. 

it- m 



The new Grand Gulf Military Monument will open 
officially May 6. The public is invited to attend the 
parade and dedication ceremony, which will begin at 
2:30 p.m. The Visitors' Center museum, a handsome 
reconstruction of an early 1800's house, will be opened. 
The museum will contain relics, paintings, photos, 
maps and dioramas of Grand Gulf as an important river 
town and of the major Naval battle fought at Grand Gulf. 
Former Gov. J. P. Coleman of Mississippi will speak. 
Mississippi Grey units will participate. Descendants 
of the participants of the battle of Grand Gulf will be 
honored. The new Visitors' Center is in the site of 
Fort Wade, one of the two forts that held off seven of 
David Dixon Porter's ironclads for 5-1/2 hours and 
finally caused Gen. U. S. Grant to by-pass Grand Gulf. 

BROWARD COUNTY CWRT of Fort Lauderdale, 
Fla., invites speakers from the north who are visitors 
to Florida to appear at their meetings. Write Presi- 
dent Dr. A. D. Martin, Jr., 1000 East Broward blvd. 

Dr. Mudd has also had a distinguished career with 
the air force and was the first field director of medi- 
cine and surgery at Carlisle barracks, Pa., 1941-42. 
He served through World War H and returned to serv- 
ice for a while during the Korean war. He has re- 
ceived numerous honors. He is a member of many 
medical and historical societies. 

Doctor Devotes Most of Lift 
To Clearing Family's Name 

We were privileged to sit beside Dr. Richard D 
Mudd on the occasion of his recent address to members 
ox the Civil War Round Table. 

- > The medical doctor has devoted most of his life to 
searching out documentary evidence that his grandfa- 
ther, Dr. Samuel A. Mudd, had no part in the assassina- 
tibn plot against President Lincoln. 

The elder Dr. Mudd was tried and foud guilty as a 
conspirator because he set John Wilkes Booth's broken 
leg after the assassination on the night of April 14, 1865, 
and served four years of a life sentence before winning 
Jus freedom. 


I Dr. Kit hard Mudd has collected 1,2 million docu- 
ments, newspaper clippings and other pieces of informa- 
tion about the epic crime. 

; Included in his collection are all the stories about 
Booth and Lincoln that have appeared in The Daily Okla- 
jhoman since 1903. 

; I One of Dr. Mudd's activities while visiting in Oklaho- 
ma City last week was to look through the newspaper's 
jlibrary files for clips of recent date. 

! "I knew as a boy that there was something wrong in 
pry family," Dr. Mudd told his Oklahoma City audience. 

; "My mother and father never discussed the matter 
Xvith me. It wasn't until I became older that I learned 
Jhat my grandfather had served a federal prison sen- 
tence for something lie was supposed to have done in the 
JLincoln assassination. I determined then to clear his 


I Dr. Mudd's father was the only one of Dr. Samuel 
Mudd's sons to become a doctor, and the present Dr. 
SVludd is the only grandson to have become a doctor. 
'< A distinguished historian, Dr. Richard Mudd earned 
his Ph.D. in history while on his way to a medical degree 
pt Georgetown University. 

i He spent the early years of his life on a Maryland 
farm near the rural home in which his grandfather at- 
tended to Booth's injury on that fateful night more than 
[102 years ago. 



APRIL 12, 1965 

New York, New York 

Dr.AAudd's Grandson, a Physician, 
Is Authority on Assassination Plot 

His grandfather "Dr. Sam" Mudd 
died 18 years before the birth of 
Richard Dyer Mudd, MD, Saginaw, 
Mich., but events of the grandfather's 
life have become familiar to the Mich- 
igan physician. 

Dr. Richard Dyer Mudd is, by voca- 
tion, plant physician at the General 
Motors Chevrolet Foundry in Saginaw. 
By avocation, he is a historian. His 
personal library and files of material 
on Lincoln and the assassination in- 
clude hundreds of volumes and many 
filing cabinets. 

Grandson's Research: Dr. Dick 
Mudd has devoted much of his leisure 
time for many years to dispelling the 
cloud that hung over "Dr. Sam," who 
set John Wilkes Booth's broken leg. 
Exhaustive research by the grandson 
has brought to light many facts sup- 
porting his contention that his grand- 
father was innocent of any complicity 
in the Lincoln assassination plot. 

Dedication of a plaque in 1961 at 
Key West, Fla., honoring "Dr. Sam" 
for his heroic efforts in overcoming 
the yellow fever epidemic at his island 
prison, was a pleasing recognition of 
his grandfather's courage and skill, 
says Dr. Dick Mudd. The Michigan 
physician, a third generation doctor, 
has spoken before many groups of his- 
torians, physicians, college students 
and service clubs. 

His historical research has led him 
to compile and publish a 1,450 page 

history of The Mudd Family in the 
United States, prepared over 22 years 
of spare-time effort. He keeps the his- 
tory up to date, and plans a revision. 
He also caused to be published the 
Life of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd written 
in 1902 by Nettie Mudd Monroe, 
daughter of "Dr. Sam" and sister of 
Thomas D. Mudd, MD, Dr. Dick's 
father. He added 35 pages of his own 
research and facts to this book by his 

Active Physician: Dr. Dick Mudd's 
vitality— he has been a fine handball 
player for many years — impresses 
even his large and active family, 
which includes his wife, Rose; seven 
children, and more than 20 grandchil- 
dren. A colonel in the Air Force Re- 
serve, he retired several years ago 
after 35 years of service. 

The public in its post-Lincoln assas- 
sination hysteria, thinks Dr. Dick 
Mudd, forgot to keep in mind about 
his grandfather what was later 
pointed out by President Andrew 
Johnson," ... It is represented to me 
by intelligent and respectable mem- 
bers of the medical profession, that 
the circumstances of the surgical aid 
to the escaping assassin and the im- 
puted concealment of his flight are 
deserving of a lenient construction as 
within the obligations of professional 
duty, and thus inadequate evidence of 
a guilty sympathy with the crime or 
the criminal ..." 

DR. SAMUEl MUDD (upper left) set the fractured left leg of John Wilkes 
Booth, when President Lincoln's assassin was fleeing through Maryland. 
Richard Dyer Mudd, MD, grandson of "Dr. Sam," and his wife, Rose (above), 
sit on the couch on which Booth was examined. It now is in their Saginaw, 
Mich., home. Charles A. Leale, MD (lower left), was the young military doctor 
in the theater who first treated the wounded President. 


f^La^ B)f?1u//}fo 


ea&ou & 



from the Mudds 

<L fihl 

Dr. Mudd was sentenced to life im- 

„ prisonment at Albany, N. Y., but Secre- 
tary of War Edwin Stanton changed the 
location to Fort Jefferson, Fla., 70 miles 
west of Key West. In 1867 an epidemic 

| of yellow fever occurred. The prison 
doctor died and Dr. Mudd volunteered 

; to take care of the sick. 

He was successful in controlling the 
epidemic, whereupon the soldiers and 
prisoners sent an appeal to President • 
Johnson that Dr. Mudd be pardoned. 
The President did so just before he left 

I the White House in Feb., 1869. 

Returned to Practice 

Dr. Mudd returned to his medical | 

practice and farm. Then 49, he never' 

recovered his health or strength and 

died of pneumonia, acquired as a result 

\ of a night call. \ 

The story of my grandfather was de- 
picted in Darryl Zanuck's 1934 movie/ 
"The Prisoner of Shark Island." War- 
ner Baxter played the role of Dr. Mudd. I 

Numerous attempts have been made to ' 
have Dr. Sam Mudd declared innocent. 
In 1957, the U. S. Senate and House of 
Representatives passed a resolution to' 
eFect a plaque at Fort Jefferson in hon- 
or of Dr. Mudd. It was approved by 
President Eisenhower. 

In 1968, a formal request to President 
Lyndon B. Johnson to have Dr. Mudd 
declared innocent was rejected on the 
advice of the Department of the Army. 
The current petition to be submitted tp 
President Nixon is 56 pages long. 

A declaration of innocence for my ' 
grandfather would not only meet with 
universal approval thruout the United 
States but would lift a great burden' 
from his approximately 265 living de- 
scendants, r 

The violent death of a leader enhanc- j 
es his stature in history by making him j 
a martyr or hero. Such honor, however, 
is not the lot of a noble human being 

\ who falls victim to the miscarriage of 
justice. My petition is a challenge to 
the conscience of America to correct a 
long-standing injustice. 

Accused of conspiring with 
Booth and associates and 
with Confederate officials 
in the assassinaton of the 
President, Dr. Mudd 
was tried by a military 

John Wilkes Booth 



> /t/ve/c/ 

"Re^J- O >&>. (? an -5. op-fa 

t) r Do^l «f f T> 

vv» rtr) so 


t'e.,'/»A,\ ,,i > G W: 

Chicago Daily flews 


Dr. Samuel Mudd 

Cleaning up 
family name 

Descendants of Dr. Samuel 
Mudd, convicted in 1865 of 
conspiracy in the assassina- 
tion of Abraham Lincoln be- 
cause he set John Wilkes 
Booth's broken leg, have pe- 
titioned for a new trial on 
the ground that the military 
tribunal that tried him had 
no jurisdiction. (AP) 






;:fr' :: ' : - :; ' :: :?iip : f ■■■:■:.. 

0^U66<^>-^_ /(jzZ^VvtM *-*■ 

/ 0~t4A>*~ &LS%£**~ 




Reed W. McDonagh 

W . Edward Berry 

W. Algie Cooksey 

Nathaniel A. Dodson 

Julius C . Robey 

Mrs. Frances H. Slavin 

George C . Dyson 

Mrs. Erhelyn T. Slifko 

Reverend James O. Waters 

Mrs. Mary B. Jenkins 

Milton M. Somers 

Bruce G . Jenkins 

Jesse L . Starkey 

M. William Runyon 

H . Fred Berry 

Welford B Bowling 


Vice President 

Administrative Assistant 


McLeod, Ferrara and Ensign Architects, A, LA 


J . Gibson Wilson, Jr. 
Kluckhuhn and McDavid 

Structural Engineer 

Mechanical and Electrical Engineers 


E Jay Smith Construction Company McLean, Virginia 


Doctor Samuel Alexander Mudd was born December 20, 1833, on a large 
plantation located on Maryland Route 232, between Beantown and Malcolm. 

At the age of 14, he entered St. John's College in Frederick City for two 
years. He completed his college work at Georgetown College in Washington, 
D.C., and then graduated with honors from Baltimore Medical College in 
March 1856. 

Dr. Mudd practiced medicine in the area near his home, treating many 
prominent families. 

In 1865, he was tried and convicted of conspiracy in the assassination of 
President Lincoln. Dr. Mudd had given medical aid to John Wilkes Booth, 
being unaware of the identity of his patient. During his imprisonment, Dr. 
Mudd distinguished himself by treating patients during a yellow fever epidemic 
while disregarding his own health. 

In March 1869, he was granted a full pardon by President Andrew Johnson. 
He returned home where he lived until his death on January 12, 1883. 

Dr. Mudd is buried at St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church Cemetery, Bryantown, 
Maryland . 


Size of Site 20 - 30 Acres 

Capacity 600 Pupils 

Area of Building 47,000 Square Feet 

Volume of Building 623,000 Cubic Feet 

Space per Pupil 78 Square Feet 

Cost of Building $900,000.00 

Cost of Site Work $100,000.00 

Per Pupil Cost $1,500.00 

Square Foot Cost $19.15 

Cubic Foot Cost $1.44 

Contract Award Date January 1967 


JC All 


A determination to keep the scale of the plan limited 
to house groups of 300 students each, was made very 
early in the programming phase. Each house group 
clusters around a four-classroom, flexible, team- 
teaching space which is related to a centralized 
Library Instructional Material Center. 

The large Multi-purpose Room, with portable stage, 
is served by kitchen facilities and is placed to accom- 
modate school needs, as well as functioning as a 
neighborhood recreation center after hours. The 
Library is similarly positioned. Toilet facilities are 
immediately accessible to these spaces and may be 
utilized in conjunction with the Multi-purpose Room 
and Library while all entrances to the school proper 
are closed . 

Several internal courtyards (approximately 24 feet 
by 24 feet) are designed into the plan to introduce 
a natural environment within the school . It is 
anticipated that these outdoor areas will be used 
in the teaching program. 

The building is air conditioned to provide maximum 
comfort for individuals availing themselves of the 


4 8 16 24 32 












DR. RICHARD MUDD is seeking to have the Army Board of Correction of 
Military Records overturn a 126-year-old conviction of his grandfather, Dr. 
Samuel Mudd. Above, Mudd displays part of his collection of President Lincoln 
and the assassination in his home on Hoyt Street in Saginaw. 


Fort Wayne News-Sentinel 

August 10, 1971 

Dr. Mudd 

Descendant's of J. W. Booth's 
Doctor Appeal For New Trial 

MIAMI (AP) — Descendants 
of the doctor who set John Wil- 
kes Booth's broken leg hours 
after Booth assassinated Abra- 
ham Lincoln want a new trial 
on Dr. Samuel Mudd's con- 
spiracy conviction 106 years 
The defendant died in 1883. 
John Mudd, a Miami attorney 
and great grandson of Dr. 
Mudd, said Wednesday he had 
asked President Nixon to re- 
view the evidence which led to 
his forebear's conviction by a 
military court as an accessory 
after the fact in the assassina- 
tion plot. 

The Miami man said the mili- 
tary tribunal which on June 30, 
1865, sentenced Dr. Mudd to life 
in prison should never had had 
jurisdiction in the case. 

"So far as we know" John 
Mudd said, "it was the only 
time that civilians were tried 
by a military court. My great- 
grandfather wasn't allowed to 
testify in his own defense nor 
was there any cross-exam- 

Booth appeared on horseback 
at Dr. Mudd's farmhouse short- 
ly after 1 a.m. Saturday, April 
15, 1865. Mudd treated him and 
sent him on his way before 
dawn. He later said he was 
unaware that Lincoln had been 
shot at Ford's Theater in near- 
by Washington and that Booth 
had broken his leg as he leaped 
from the president's box to the 
stage in his getaway. 

Mudd said he set Booth's leg 
as a humanitarian act he would 
perform for anyone and that he 
was not a member of any con- 

Mudd was imprisoned at Ft. 
Jefferson, an isolated fortress 
in the Dry Tortugas Islands. 
After a yellow fever epidemic 
in 1869, he received a pardon 
from President Andrew John- 
son for his efforts to save fel- 
low prisoners and guards. 

After his release, Dr. Mudd 
returned to Maryland and con- 
tinued to seek a new trial on 
grounds the Army had no au- 
thority to try him. Shortly be- 
fore his death in 1883 the Su- 
preme Court turned down a pe- 
tition to hear his case. 

In the 1920s Dr. Richard 
Mudd of Saginaw, Mich., under- 
took study of the assassination 
to determine his grandfather's 

"Despite the fact of his in- 
nocence, I'm afraid we're fight- 
ing a losing battle with this pe- 

tition for a new trial for a maa 
who's been dead almost a cen- 
tury," the 71-year-old Michigan 
doctor said. 

''Legally there's serious 
doubt whether President Nixon 
has a right to overrule another 


Washington, D. C. 
Thursday, August 19, 1971 

Clear Dr. Mudd, Family Asks 

MIAMI (AP) — Descendants 
of the doctor who set John 
Wilkes Booth's broken leg hours 
after Booth assassinated Abra- 
ham Lincoln want a new trial on 
Dr. Samuel Mudd's conspiracy 
conviction 106 years ago. 

The defendant died in 1883. 
John Mudd, a Miami attorney 
and great grandson of Dr. Mudd, 
said yesterday he had asked 
President Nixon to review the 
evidence which led to the doc- 
tor's conviction by a military 
court as an accessory afer the 
fact in the assassination plot. 

Mudd lived near Port Tobacco 
in Southern Maryland. 

The Miami man said the mili- 
tary tribunal which on June 30, 
1865, sentenced Dr. Mudd to life 
in prison should never had had 
jurisdiction in the case. 

"So far as we know" John 
Mudd said, "it was the only time 
that civilians were tried by a 
military court. My greatgrand- 
father wasn't allowed to testify 


in his own defense nor was there 
any cross-examination." 

Booth appeared on horseback 
at Dr. Mudd's farmhouse shortly 
after 1 a.m. Saturday, April 15, 
1865. Mudd treated him and sent 
him on his way before dawn. He 

later said he was unaware that 
Lincoln had been shot at Ford's 
Theater in nearby Washington 
and that Booth had broken his 
leg as he leaped from the presi- 
dent's box to the stage in his 

Mudd said he set Booth's leg 
as a humanitarian act he would 
perform for anyone and that he 
was not a member of any con- 

Mudd was imprisoned at Ft. 
Jefferson, an isolated fortress in 
the Dry Tortugas Islands. After 
a yellow fever epidemic in 1869, 
he received a pardon from Pres- 
ident Andrew Johnson for his 
efforts to save fellow prisoners 
and guards. 

Althogether, four conspirators 
convicted in the assassination 
were imprisoned and four were 
hanged, including Mary E. Sur- 
ratt. The plotters were supposed 
to have met at her house. Booth 
was tracked down and shot when 
he emerged from a burning 

After his release, Dr. Mudd 
returned to Maryland and con- 
tinued to seek a new trial on 
grounds the Army had no au- 
thority to try him. Shortly be- 
fore his death in 1883 the Su- 
preme Court turned down a peti- 
tion to hear his case. 

In the 1920s Dr. Richard Mudd 
of Saginaw, Mich., undertook 
study of the assassination to de- 
termine his grandfather's role. 

"Despite the fact of his inno- 
cence, I'm afraid we're fighting 
a losing battle with this petition 
for a new trial for a man who's 
been dead almost a centruy," 
the 71-year-old Michigan doctor 

"Legally, there's serious doubt 
whether President Nixon has a 
right to overrule another presi- 

"Besides, that President John- 
son was a Republican too and it 
wouldn't look good for one Re- 
publican president to overrule 

Chicaqo Tribune 


Dr. Samuel Mudd 

Ask Retrial 
of Mudd in 
Lincoln Case 

MIAMI, Aug. 19 (/r— De- 
scendants of the doctor who set 
John Wilkes Booth's broken leg 
hours alter Booth assassinated 
Abraham Lincoln want a new 
trial on Dr. Samuel Mudd's 
conspiracy conviction 106 years 
ago. The defendant died in 1883. 
John Mudd, a Miami attorney 
and great-grandson of Dr. 
Mudd, said yesterday he had 
asked President Nixon to re- 
view the evidence which led to 
his forebear's conviction by a 
military court as an accessory 
after the fact in the assassina- 
tion plot. 

The Miami man said the 
military tribunal which on June 
30, 1865, sentenced Dr. Mudd to 
life in prison should never have 
had jurisdiction in the case. 

"So far as we know," John 
Mudd said, "it was the only 
time that civilians were tried 
by a military court. My great- 
grandfather wasn't allowed to 
testify in his own defense, nor 
was there any cross-examina- 

Booth appeared on horseback 
at Dr. Mudd's farmhouse short- 
ly after l a. m. Saturday, April 
15, 1865. Mudd treated him and 
sent him on his way before 
dawn. He later said he was 
unaware that Lincoln had beer, 
shot at Ford's Theater in 
nearby Washington and that 
Booth had broken his leg as he 
leaped from the President's box 
to the stage in his getaway. 

Mudd was imprisoned at Fort 
Jefferson, an isolated fortress 
in the Dry Tortugas Islands. 
After a yellow fever epidemic 
in 1869, he received a pardon 
from President Andrew John- 
son for his efforts to save other 
prisoners and guards. 



August 22, 1971 

• ,.■ a i. 

Descendant Fights 


Frea Press Staff Writer 

SAGINAW— In the pre-dawn 
darkness of Saturday, April 15, 
1865, a young Maryland physi- 
cian helped an injured man to 
a dark red velour-covered 
couch in his parlor and made 
an examination. . , 

Dr. Samuel Mudd set John 
Wilkes Booth's broken leg 
after the Lincoln assassination 
and was convicted of Conspir- 
acy by a military tribunal. 

The prognosis was that the 
injured man had broken the fi- 
bula bone in his left leg. The 
doctor cut away the man's 
boot and splinted the leg. He 
tried to find a carriage for the 
injured man and his compan- 
ion, but was unsuccessful. So 
they went their way on horse- 

The physician was Pr. 
Samuel Mudd, and the injured 
man who woke him at 4 a.m. 
was John Wilkes Booth, assas- 
sin of President Abraham Lin- 
coln. Booth had broken his leg 
leaping from the President's 
box at Ford's Theater in 
Washington after shooting Lin- 

Dr. Mudd was subsequently 
tried as a conspirator in the 
Lincoln assassination and sen- 
tenced to life in prison.' 

Though he was a slaveholder 
and had met Booth on two pre- 
vious occasions, no one was 
ever able to prove Dr. Mudd 
was in on the assa sanation 
plot, or even recognized the 
disguished Booth as the man 
with the broken leg. 

Dr. Mudd was released from 
the Ft. Jefferson Prison on 
Dry Tortugas Island, Fla., 
four years later, but, his guilty 
verdict still stands. 

NOW, Dr. Mudd's grand- 
son. Saginaw physician D*-. 
Richard D. Mudd, 71. and 
other descendants have asked 
President Nixon t 6" declare 
their ancestor innocent or 
Order a new trial for him. 

The request is not a sudden 

began to realize somethit 
s h o u 1 d ba done about my 
grandfather's case,** said Dr. 
Mudd, a man with mild blue 
eyes and a doctor's crisp man? 

| ■■■■■■ 

Dr. Richard D. Mudd, of Saginaw, holds the key 
to the cell where his grandfather, Dr, Samuel 
Mudd, was imprisoned. 

appeal, but comes after dec- 
ades of work by Dr ( , Mudd to 
have his grandfather's name 
cleared. He has collected in- 
formation for years in his 
roomy, grey clapboard house 
in Saginaw, where the dark- 
red velour couch stands now. , 

•' He Keeps flies on anyone he 

~ thinks might be connected 
with the case. He even has a 
file on Clare Booth Luce — 
"After all," he explained, "she 
is a Booth." And another file 
on a soldier named Zisgen, 
who was present when John 
Wilkes Booth was shot at a 
farm in Virginia. 

Beginning In the 1920s, Mudd 
h_as accumulated a treasure- 

! trove of information and his 
research . has convinced him 
that his grandfather was not 
cnly innocent, but tried and 
sentenced by an illegal tri- 

I was a teen-ager I 

-JSltii Li X« — 



August 22, 1971 


"At first I had no intention 

' to try to clear his name. To 

me that seemed impossible." 

But Dr. Mudd, who has a 

* doctorate in history in addition 

■ to his medical degree, kept 


"We have tried every type 

of thing that can be tried to 

. bring it to the attention of the 

Congress and the people of the 

country,*.' he said. 

THERE'S BEEN a Holly- 
wood movie about his grand- 
father. (The Prisoner of Shark 
Island, 1936), pageants in his 
honor in Maryland, television 
and radio programs. There's . 
even an elementary school 
named for him in Waldorf, 

In the J930's, the Mudd fam- 
ily tried — unsuccessfully — to 
get Congress to change the 
name of Fort Jefferson, F^ 
to Fort Mudd. 

A victory came in 1961 when 
a plaque was dedicated at Key 
West, Fia., commemorating. 
Dr. Mudd's efforts in combat- 
ting a yellow fever epidemic 
that raged through {he fort in 

After the epidemic, grateful 

soldiers and prisoners at Fort 
Jefferson twice petitioned 
President And rew Johnson to 
pardon Dr. Mudd. Finally, in 
1869, the doctor was pardoned 
and returned to his Maryland 
home, where he died in 1883. 

"When we got the monu- 
ment approved, we knew we 
had aa ace in the hole," chuc- 
kled Dr. Mudd. "We knew 
Congress and the President 
might be embarrassed — if 
you're going to erect a monu- 
ment to a prisoner, you ought 
to have him declared inno- 

In 1968, in a petition to. Pres- 
ident Lyndon Johnson,, D r, 
Mudd listed 16 reasons why his 
grandfather should be de- 
clared innocent or given a new 
'trials ..'"■'"'- '•'. 

He contended among other 

• Although Dr. Samuel Mudd 
set the broken leg of John 
Wilkes Booth, the doctor was 
unaware of Lincoln's assassi- 

nation at the time. 

• His grandfather gave Infor- 
mation to federal authorities 
that aided in Booth's capture. 

• His grandfather was held 
incommunicado for 19 days 
after his arrest, and state- 
ments were taken before he 
was allowed to talk with an at- 

• A civilian, his grandfather 
was tried by a military com- 
mission, a tribunal later ruled 
illegal by the Supreme Court. 

• His grandfather was not ail- 
lowed to testify in his own be- 
half. ! 

Several months later, D r 
Mudd received a letter from 
David E. McGiffert, under- 
secretary of the Army, declar- 
ing the guilty verdict was 
binding and that there was 
"no authority under the law 
whereby a new trial or dec- 
laration of innoncence can be 

, The McGiffert decision 
flpujrred Dr. Mudd to new ef- 

forts. ^He sent a new "'petition' 
in December, 1970, this time to 
President Nixon with help; 
from U,S. Sen.: Pj?$p 4}axt,- 
Dr. Mudd wrote: 

,-' "This will probably be tht 
last appeal to the President in ' 
behalf of Dr. Samuel A, Mudd. 
I feel sure that the Pnjted^ 
States government ma $a *j 
tragic mistake in trying' :'£$$ 
Samuel A. Mudd and fmd«»f| 
him guilty and no one bu£ ma*} 
President, himself, can'-rjgj|tj 
this wrong. . v . 

"The people of (he 'Vln#&§, 

States have already concludedj 

that Dr. Mudd wasmot -gui|t$| 

All this is now necessary ^m 

Jiat the President tf®g".&l 


Chicago, 111. 

Friday, April 14, 1972 

Strange Case of Dr. Mudd 

Convicted 1865, Pardoned 1869, Deceased 1883, Still Not 'Free' 

By Richard Mudd 

For half a century, Dr. Richard Mudd 
F- and members of his family have fought 
to establish the innocence of Dr. Mudd's 
grandfather, Samuel, in the assassina- 
tion of Abraham Lincoln. Today, on the 
'■ anniversary of the assassination, Dr. 
Mudd tells his grandfather's story. The 
] author is a resident of Saginaw, Mich., 
i and a retired General Motors viedical 

In keeping with the election year 
theme, the descendants of Dr. Samuel 
A. Mudd are conducting a campaign— 
"Free Doctor Mudd," aided by bumper 
stickers and campaign buttons gra- 
ciously provided by Medical Opinion 
magazine of New York. 

The goal of our campaign is to per- 
suade President Nixon and the Con- 
gress to exonerate my grandfather of | 
complicity in the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln. Today, the anniversary of 
the Lincoln assassination, hopefully will 
mark a turning point in the campaign. 
| Sen. Philip A. Hart [D., Mich.], my 
I longtime friend, hopes to present a peti- 
tion to President Nixon, asking him to 
: declare T)r. Samuel Mudd innocent. 

The Beginning 

It all began on April 14, 1865. John 
Wilkes Booth, who had planned for six 
months to kidnap Abraham Lincoln and 
to hold him as a hostage for the release 
of Confederate prisoners, decided that 
with the war at an end— Gen. Robert E. 
Lee having surrendered on April 9— he 
would assassinate the President. 

What his motives were and what as- 
sistance he had are subject to consider- 
able controversy and may never be 

Lincoln's attendance at the Ford The- 

atre on Good Friday, April 14, gave 

■ ' ' ~ ' _ j 

Booth the chance he looked for. Gen. 

Ulysses S. Grant, whose aides might | 
j have protected Lincoln, declined to ac- | 

company the President. The only 
' guard, one appointed by Mrs. Lincoln, 
1 had left his post, permitting Booth to 

enter the box and fire a handmade 

bullet into the head of the President. 
' s 

j Booth's spur was his undoing, for as : 

he jumped out of the box onto the stage 

f it caught in the Treasury flag, causing 

; him to fall heavily and break his left 

kJs&u^iw. m t *&# jum 

Booth's plan was to reach Virginia 
thru the underground route in Southern 
Maryland. The pain in his leg forced 
! him to leave his route a distance of 
about three miles each way to consult a 

He knew of the location of my grand- 
father's home because in the fall of 1864 
Booth jhad come to Bryantown, five 
miles south of Dr. Mudd's home, and 
had attended Catholic church services 
I there. He stated that he wished to buy 
horses and land. Dr. Mudd, when intro- 
duced to Booth, remarked that his 
neighbor, Squire Gardiner, had "a fast 
horse which he would sell because it had 
only one eye. 

Booth came by Dr. Mudd's home and 
was guided to the Gardiner home where 
he bought the one-eyed horse. This 
horse was used by one of the conspira- 
j tors, Lewis Powell [alias Payne], on 
1 the night of the Lincoln assassination 
when he attacked Secretary of State 
William H. Seward in his home. 

The only other time Dr. Mudd saw j 
Booth was on Dec. 23, 1864, when he 

1 went to Washington to buy a stove for j 

his wife. - g 


Dr. Mudd, who lived 30 miles from 1 
Washington, had graduated from the 
University of Maryland Medical School 
in 1856, was married, and had four 
children. One of these, Thomas D., my 
father, was then four years of age. 
Grandfather had a. country medical 
practice and ran his farm with the help 
of several slaves until their emancipa- 
tion in 1863. 

Booth, accompanied by David E. He- 
rold, a 23-year-old drug clerk, knocked 
on Dr. Mudd's door at 4 a. m. April 15, 
giving the names of Tyler and Tyson. 
Herold did all the talking and stated 
that his friend had fallen from a horse 
and broken his leg. 

Booth, an accomplished actor, was 
disguised with a false beard and kept a 
heavy shawl over his shoulder. Dr. 
Mudd, who did not recognize him, re- 
moved Booth's boot and found a fracture 
of the left fibula. He splinted and 
dressed the leg, advised him to rest and 
attempt to rent a carriage. Herold 
tried to find a carriage but could not do 
I so, and he and Booth left on horseback 

t^latR^^nactB^)ti|i||mf lJK : i 

Meantime Dr. Mudd who had gone 
into Bryantown to obtain the mail, 
learned of the Lincoln assassination. He 
became suspicious of his two visitors 
and this was confirmed when his wife 
told him that a false beard had fallen 
away from the injured man's face as he 
left. At church services the next morn- 
[ ing— Easter Sunday— Dr. Mudd asked 
his cousin, Dr. George D. Mudd, to in- 
form the soldiers at Bryantown about 
the two suspicious horsemen. 

Soldiers Visit Twice 

; The troops came on Tuesday and 
again on Friday. Dr. Mudd showed 
them the boot he had removed, and in 
it was written "J. Wilkes." The troops 
thereby felt certain that Dr. Mudd had 
attended the assassin. On April 26, Booth 
was caught in the Garrett barn at Port 
Royal, Va., and was shot or committed 

Dr. Mudd was taken to Washington 
April 21 and imprisoned. On April 22 a 
statement was taken from him without 
benefit of legal advice. The charges 
were not read to him until the 18th day 
after his capture and only then was he 
able to obtain an attorney. He was re- 
quired to wear a strait jacket and a 
hood, and his eyes and ears were packed 
with cotton. He had a ball and chain on 
his ankles and his wrists were chained. 

Accused of conspiring with Booth 
and his associates and with Confederate 
officials in the assassination of the 
President, Dr. Mudd was tried by a 
military commissipn. President Andrew 
Johnson had ordered this form of trial, 
even tho the eight defendants charged 
in the assassination were civilians, the 
war was over, and the civil courts were 
completely open. 

This was done on the verbal advice of 
[ Johnson's attorney jeneral, jJames_ 

Speed, whose written approval was 
dated "July 1865" after four of the "con- 
spirators" had already been hanged. 
This form of trial was contrary to the 
third and fifth Articles of the Constitu- 
tion and was later ruled illegal by the 
Supreme Court in its Ex parte Milligan' 
decisum of 1866. 

8 A 

MfnnsapoHs Tribune 

Sun., April"! 8.1972 

. #"- A * 6 P- '- - 


tf s 1 1»4 %J 

i t it U, y 

M t II 

S W *> 

* New York Times Service 

' » Chicago, 111. 
;"Free Dr. Mudd." While the political slogan is hardly on 

the lips of every American, it has lately aroused several, 
thousand citizens who have pasted such a sucker on 
their car bumpers. 

Thus they have joined the 107-yeor-old fight to clear the 

name of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd, the country doctor who 
was sentenced to life imprisonment for setting the bro- 
ken leg of John Wilkes Booth. Dr. Mudd was the poor 

- man whose travails are said to have prompted the ex- 
pression "Your name is mud." 

5 In what supporters say will be the final attempt to 

- clear the Mudd name, Sen. Philip Hart, D-Mich., and Dr. 
Mudd's 71-year-old grandson sent a petition to President 
Nixon last week, the anniversary of President Abraham 
Lincoln's assassination by Booth. 

The petition seeks a presidential declaration that Dr. 
Mudd was "innocent of any crime in the circumstances 
surrounding the death of President Lincoln." Hart will 
also introduce a similar congressional resolution. 

This latest historical footnote to Lincoln's death culmi- 
nates almost a half century's work for the grandson, Dr. 
Richard D Mudd, who is also a country doctor. A spry 
resident of Saginaw, Mich., Dr. Mudd has spent thou- 
sands of hours and dollars on research, speeches and 
writings to expunge the blot on the name of the grand- 
father he never met. 

1% H- 

i ? s 


& I, 

o i loLE s St 

n w a l 

i i 

if '1 

Four years later Dr. Mudd was pardoned by President 
"Andrew Johnson after the doctor valiantly tended fellow 
inmates during a yellow fever epidemic. But to many of 
Dr, Mudd : s 280-odd livir.g descendants, who include Rog- 
er Mudd, the television reporter, a pardon was not an ex- 

"I don't think there can be any doubt about my grand- 
father's innocence," Dr. Mudd said. "How could Booth 
know in advance that he would need a doctor that night'? 

If granddad was a conspirator, why would Booth, who 
was quite a good actor, you know, wear a disguise and 
give a false name? And why would granddad report it 

"He wouldn't, of ccurse. And I think election year is a 

good time for the President to do a Utile something for 
an old ooum ry doctor," he concluded. 

His cause has been supported in numerous resolutions 
by state medical and historical groups. But decades of 
artful bureaucratic dodging and delaying have stymied 
his efforts where they count — in Washington, D.C. 

"I suppose I'm crazy," Dr. Mudd said in an interview as 
he packed for the trip to the nation's capital, "but the 
whole conscience of America must purge itself of this 
horrible injustice." 

His grandfather's legendary difficulties began 107 years 
ago last. Friday night when a disguised Booth and an ac- 
complice rode up to the Mudd house outside Bryantown, 
Md., about 30 miles southeast of Washington. 

Bootn had cauaht his spurs in the Hag bunting wnile 
leaping from the presidential box at Ford's Theater and 
broke his leg. Dr. Mudd treated Booth, who left a few 
hours later, but not before Mrs. Mudd saw his false 
beard slip off once. 

After the Mudds learned of the assassination the next 
day, they notified authorities of the suspicious pair. Five 
days later Dr. Mudd was arrested as a conspirator. He- 
was tried and convicted by a military commission, as 
were seven others. Four were hanged and four went to 
prison for life. 

According to Don E. Fehrenba ;hcr, a noted Lincoln 
scholar at Stanford University, "There is a feeling 
among historians that the evidence against Mudd would I 
not have been strong enough to convict him at another, i 

ic.-o emotion:.!, time." , I 

€ >*-&-2 



&i Oy 


■■.-.: *%t. ' .,u:-i 


m ■■ i 

tee, »-».<*$ .u*e-«:'4*<fc,*-<. : . -■-.■ 




'.' :■<:■-■ lev® *i + 


," ■„••• tr~i*. •"^K'g ?'V* 

■ ,' ; 

g$3*&* ^/^>^*~x £*! ■-• :, 

■tti.+etagg-j* ■_ - i-'i v- •* ■*■.■ **■■.*• *>;■ *-■■ i*v 

- •' ,C^.' •.;_';' "' 

^"-•■0.'»£$<£?£-7 •£ ' 

v5> g 1 "*^.^'^ * ? '- : *V?¥i%s>»^i 

.■f^"S«^,,, . 

:- ! •- 'V;' '■■'. 

■•s* ■**< 


;..'.***3r : '-•■:.;.. ■•_ 

*A.^»BM»^0*V)lyr WK*'"'**^?^.' 

. . .- . • .. i ■ .■■■>■ ',*, .,.......■ 

* ^/^-.a'sj^a w aaiii 


- ■ -: v.;'-iwi*.v '£ju . jfc , sssi. 8 '-' i- i r - ■ ti' mb i iii'fi ii nil lii iter iMij>i«lir»i iig^i'iv f .,,.^. „. ( /^: ..4> 

Staff Photo by Earl Seubert 

Dr. George Riley Martin, a Minneapolis physician who bumper sticker and his "Free Doctor Mudd" laoel but- 
supports the cause for Dr. Samuel Mudd, displayed his ton. 


Feb. 6, 1974 


Request to restore 
Mudd house continues 

Whether the home of Dr. Samuel A. 
Mudd in Bryantown will be 
historically preserved or not is now 
apparently a question of whether a 
$43,000 price disagreement can be 


The Maryland Historical Trust has 
offered to buy and restore the home 
of the doctor who treated Abraham 
Lincoln's assassin, but has budgeted 
only $107,000 for the house and 10 
acres. That offer is below the 
$150,000 owner Joseph Mudd has 
asked for the property, according to 
Mrs. Louise Arehart. To meet the 
asking price, the state legislature will 
have to budget the additional money. 
Mrs. Arehart, a member of the 
Mudd family, appeared before the 
Charles County Commissioners 
Wednesday seeking their support in 
operating and maintaining the home, if 
it is purchased. According to the 
arrangement worked out with the state 
historical foundation, the county must 
operate and maintain the property 
once the state has purchased it. 

The estimated cost of operating and 

maintaining the home, said Mrs. Janet 
Gummere, Supervisor of the 
Department of Parks and Recreation, 
would be between $15,000 and 
$17,000. Part of that amount, she 
added, would be offset by admission 

charges. , 

The county commissioners agreea 
to pass a resolution promising to 
operate and maintain the property. 

The Dr. Mudd home in Bryantown 
is the place where John Wilkes Booth 
had his broken leg treated after 
shooting the President and leaping 
from the balcony at Ford's Theatre in 
Washington, D.C. Booth left the Mudd 
home, then fled southward through 
Charles County and into Virginia, 
where he was trapped and killed 

But Dr. Mudd's brush with Booth 
triggered an historical mystery that 
still exists. Dr. Mudd, a respected 
Charles County physician, was 
convicted of aiding in the assassination 
plot and Booth's escape. He claimed 
that he knew nothing of the plot, 
however, that he merely treated a 
patient and that he did not recognize 

Booth. . 

Dr. Mudd was sent to prison alter 
his conviction and sentenced to a life 
term at Fort Jefferson in the Dry 
Tortugas. While there, he was credited 
with saving countless lives when a 
yellow fever epidemic erupted. For his 
effort at Fort Jefferson, Dr. Mudd was 
pardoned but never absolved of guilt. 
Years later, Dr. Mudd's story was 
made into a Warner Brothers film, 
'The Prisoner of Shark Island, 
starring Warner Baxter. 

The family, which includes many 
direct descendents in Charles County, 
still carries on the fight to clear Dr. 
Mudd's name. The request has reached 
the Congress and the Presidency more 
than once. 

Mrs. Arehart said she hopes the 
restoration of the Mudd home can be 
agreed to and completed in time for 
the nation's bicentennial celebration in 

The two- story frame house on the 
Mudd property is now the home ot 
Joseph Mudd and his family, who 
operate a farm there. 


Feb. 17, 1974 

Chicago, 111. 

Descendants of Dr. Mudd 
fight to clear family name 

: By. Donald Yabush 

NO. .ONJE likes his family 

name dragged thru the mud, 
and 73 -year -old Dr. Richard 
Mudd is no exception. 

For 50 years Dr. Mudd and 
other members of his clan 
have waged a campaign to 
clear the name of Dr. Samuel 
A. Mudd. 

Dr. Richard Mudd of Sagi- 
naw, Mich., is convinced Dr. 
Samuel Mudd, his grandfather, 
was wrongfully convicted of 
conspiring with John Wilkes 
Booth, President Abraham 
Lincoln's assassin. Samuel 
Mudd was convicted, but later 
pardoned. He treated Booth's 
leg when Booth came to him 
after the assassination. 

Thru the years unsuccessful 
appeals by the Mudd family 
seeking to expunge the charges 
have been made to Congress 
and several Presidents. 

NOW THE cause has been 

taken to various state legisla- 
tures. Michigan and Maryland 
have passed resolutions asking 
Congress to. clear Mudd's 

Lincoln was shot in the head 
by Booth on April 14, 1865, in 
Ford's Theater, Washington. 
Booth, an actor, leaped from 
the Presidential box onto the 
stage and caught the spur of 
his left boot in a flag and 
broke his leg. 

"BOOTH knew the location 

of my grandfather's home, 30 
miles south of Washington in 

: S Wi 

Dr. Samuel Alexander Mudd 

Charles County, Maryland, be- 
cause the two had met socially 
the previous fall and Booth 
asked my grandfather where 
he could buy a horse," Mudd 

After . the assassination, 
Booth and a confederate began 
fleeing south to Virginia when 
the broken leg caused him to 
seek medical aid. The actor, 
wearing a false beard, called 
on Samuel Mudd, who treated 


The next day Mudd learned 
of the assassination, and told 
federal authorities of his pa- 
tient. Booth left the doctor 
and later was shot to death in 
a barn. A military commission 
convicted Mudd of conspiracy 
in the murder, tho he pleaded 
innocent. He: later was par- 
doned by President Andrew 
Johnson, but Mudd's descen- 
dants say a pardon assumes 
he was guilty. This, Richard 

Mudd said, is wrong. 


March 11, 1974 

Cleveland, o. 

g //// y<+- 

y miasm 

mwma m 

Since he visited Ft. Jefferson on Dry Tortugas Island 
off Florida years ago, Norman J. Freeman, Woodhill Chem- 
ical Sales Corp. board chairman, has been interested in 
Dr. Samuel 4- Mudd. The physician was convicted of con- 
spiracy after the fact in John Wilkes Booth's assassination 
plot against President Lincoln. Dr. Mudd was imprisoned 
in Ft. Jefferson. 

Freeman corresponds with Dr. Mudd's grandson, Dr. 
Richard D. Mudd of Saginaw, Mich. The grandson has 
been working for years to clear Dr. Mudd's name and have 
Ft. Jefferson renamed after him. Only evidence against 
him was that he set Booth's leg, broken when he leaped! 
. from the Ford Theater presidential loge. Dr. Mudd was 
pardoned after four years because he saved the lives of 
many prisoners and guards in a yellow-fever epidemic. 
Freeman agrees with the grandson that Dr. Mudd not only 
should have been pardoned but completely exonerated. 
Freeman believes Ft. Jefferson should become a national 
shrine to Dr. Mudd. .-'?.. 

The Jacksonville Journal 

May 6, 1974 

Jacksonville, Fla. 

Civil War Case Now 
Legislative T 

John Wilkes Booth broke his 
leg when he leaped from the 
presidential box to the stage 
of Ford's Theatre after as- 
sassinating President Abra- 
ham Lincoln. 

During his escape, Booth 
stopped at the home of Dr. 
Samuel A. Mudd for treat- 

Mudd was apparently una- 
ware of the shooting when 
Booth came to his home, but 
when Union soldiers learned 
Mudd had doctored Booth, 
the physician was tried and 
convicted of conspiracy. 

Now, 109 years later, 
Mudd's grandson, Dr. Rich- 
ard D. Mudd of Saginaw, 
Mich., is trying to get the 
conviction overturned, and 
so far is making good prog- 

The Florida House of Rep- 

resentatives approved a res- 
olution Friday asking that 
Samuel Mudd be declared 
innocent, and the Maryland 
Legislature previously ap- 
proved a similar resolution. 

Midd served four years in 
isolated imprisonment at 
Fort Jefferson on the unin- 
habited Dry Tortugas Is- 
land, off the Florida Keys. 

He was sentenced to life 
in prison by a military tri- 
bunal, but lus sentence was 
commuted in 1869 by Presi- 
dent Andrew Johnson after 
Mudd treated other sick in- 
mates during a yellow fever 
epidemic at the prison. 

Mudd was freed, returned 
to his Maryland home and 
died in 1883 at the age of 49. 

The Mudd Resolution in 
the Florida House was spon- 
sored by Rep. Richard 

Hodes of Tampa, a physi- 
cian who met Richard Mudd 
at a medical convention a 
decade ago. 

"I believe this is clearly a 
case of a man and his des- 
cendants being hurt by judi- 
cial misconduct. A Florida 
post-Civil War judge upheld 
Mudds conviction. That is 
I he reason it is a matter of 
concern for the legislature," 
Hodes said. 

Although the U.S. Su- 
preme Court ruled in 1866, 
the year after Mudd's con- 
viction, that civilians could 
not be tried by military tri- 
bunals, the physician was 
not freed for three mere 

Mudd was the subject of a 
1936 movie, "The Prisoner of 
Shark Island, " in which ac- 
tor Warner Baxter played 
the part of the doctor. 

, ft ) 

(Y ( r. V'C-- 




saginaw, mich. 48607 May 16, 1975 

Mr, Vincent P. DeSantis 
Professor of History- 
University of Notre Dame 
Notre Dame, Indiana U6$5>6 

Dear Mr. Santis: 

I was pleased to receive your letter of May 8th, 

I am glad you are interested in the large 
collections of papers I have on the Lincoln 
Assassination and John Wilkes Booth. I have 
approximately 800,000 on the Lincoln Assassination 
and possibly 1*00,000 on John Wilkes Booth. 

Two Georgetown University researchers have 
been here to inspect them and have requested that 
I donate them to their Library and I have made a 
promise to do so. 

I graduated from Georgetown University and so 
did my grandfather, Dr. Samuel A. Mudd. 

Any one who wishes to may use my records 
without restrictions. Persons do come here to study 
them and I have supported several writers. 

Three of our daughters attended St. Mary's 
College and all three married Notre Dame graduates 
so we have a great interest in Notre Dame. 

If I can help you in any way, I will be glad 
to do so. 


Richard D. Mudd,M.D. 
RDM:mb . 

(pig ?t^U^ ks-ru^2 -4>£t^t- >*6^ -yu^e- 

,H > 


77 ~ *■ 


town U. library 


-< News Staff Writer 

A priceless assortment of items on the 
assassination of President Lincoln, collect- 
ed by Dr. Richard B. Mudd, 1001 Hoyt, will 
go to the Georgetown University Library. 

The collection, representing 58 years of 
work for Dr. Mudd, numbers about 800,000 
pieces of paper on the Lincoln assassina- 
tion and another 200,000 on John Wilkes 
Booth and his alleged or otherwise 

Dr. Mudd's interest in the assassination 
stems from his grandfather, Dr. Samuel 
Mudd, who treated the injured Booth and 
thereby became involved and imprisoned 
as a conspirator. 

Dr. Samuel Mudd served four years at 
the federal prison, Fort Jefferson, but was 
pardoned for his work in a yellow fever 

Dr. Mudd's collection also includes a 
great number on items on Fort Jefferson. 
Just last week a writer from St. Peters- 
burg, Fla., visited the Mudd home to get 
Information for a story on the Fort. 

He also has a rather considerable file on 
Mary Suratt, who operated a rooming 
house at which Booth had stayed. She was 
also branded a co-conspirator and went to 
the gallows just 110 years ago today. 

Dr. Mudd feels her execution was a great 
injustice and that she, like bis grandfather, 
was engulfed in the hysteria of the times 
and suffered unfairly. 

Some of the items Dr. Mudd has collected 
will go to the Dr. Samuel Mudd Home, 
being acquired by the State of Maryland as 
a historic site. 

Dr. Mudd has, at his home here, the 

couch upon which Booth sat as Dr. Samuel 

Mudd set his broken leg. He also has two 

checker board tables that Dr. Mudd made 

(See Lincoln, Page A-7) 

1 jj v IZ^Tfflppii *$*&*£&?&& 
fK'.z, ' / <>■%, \:4j-* f /'i ,-■,-.. "-■■ '<■■■■■ 



■ - -r% f 

/' :}W-- ■. 


;~. <£., 


■;S>.;..- ,*■;,■„ .-•><"'..•■.'-. j,v y -.A'-u? \* '■ f ;-v. ; 

>- ',. ' -. . ?■ -?,>;,.. *"• • v*- - ' jr t , - • < '■■ ■ 

. ■■■■ .. . ■* ;. • ■ ■ ... •-•- •?.%'*'-«*■.• f'- ■ -i * . . •• -• 

... ' >•• '■: " ■. ■'■. ' ',? ■ ■■•V '•'*■■ v •■•-,'"* '' '■ ■''■' i-K 

■ ■■■ * , 1 Vf "' -, i'- ■■': ■' :'<'■ . '*- ■.'-"'' ' H :■:■ ". :'y 


1 S : 

* : ' -v ■■■■ * S\ y^***- f 

i 1 iLaii^^^^**^^ ^ \ ^ .-".:a- '.''■/ X ?'■■■■} **.-,*» _^_ 

"\X\ f ,".:;s 


^1 : ^ 

:,r «^?r««."' 

■ ■■■ ': * 



—Saginaw News Photo 

Dr. Mudd with memorabilia 








■" — • -;■ 

>fc££X .toGeorg 



(Continued from Page A-l) 

while imprisoned at Fort Jefferson, Dry 
Tortugas. > - 

The Surratt Home in Washington, D.C. is 
also being converted into a museum and 
Dr. Mudd sees that as a likely place for his 
Surratt papers. 

Dri Mifdd also has the key for the cell Dr. 
Samuel Mudd occupied at Fort Jefferson. 

He said the U.S. Park Service has shown 
an interest in his Fort Jefferson papers and 
items relating to the prison. His Fort Jef- 
ferson collection also includes a number of 
diaries kept by other prisoners, all of which 
mention Dr. Samuel Mudd. 

Dr. Mudd selected Georgetown Univer- 
sity because of its proximity to where it all 
happened and because Georgetown has a 
magnificent fireproof library, dedicated 
just eight years ago. His assassination 
papers would be treated as a special col- 
lection and be available to scholars. 

Representatives of Georgetown Univer- 
sity have been in Saginaw to discuss the 

"And," said Dr. Mudd, "three of the 
alleged conspirators attended Georgetown 
University. Dr. Samuel Mudd was in the 
class of '55 (1855); David E. Herold, who 
helped Booth escape from Washington and 
was nabbed with the assassin in a tobacco 
shed near Port Royal, Va., was Class of '63, 
and Samuel B. Arnold a conspirator, Class 
of '43. 

Herald went to the gallows with Mary 
Surratt while Arnold was imprisoned with 
Dr. Mudd. 

Saginaw's Dr. Mudd, now 75, is an auth- 
ority on the assassination and is often in- 
vited to lecture on the subject. Most 
recently he received an invitation from the 
Civil War Round Table, New York, but the 
Nov. 12 date interferes with one already set 
for Westfield, N.J. He has two others that 
same week, Atlanta, Ga., and Titusville, 

He likes to limit his speaking" en- 
gagements to three a month as they are 
demanding on his time. He does physical 
examinations three days a week in Sagin- 
aw; helps out at the County Hospital; and 
plays handball four days a week at the 
YMCA. Dr. Mudd has also agreed to help 
out after Sept. 1 at a local GM plant. 

Dr. Mudd feels it was the yellow fever 
epidemic that made his grandfather 

When Dr. Joseph S. Smith — also Geor- 
getown University Class '57 — assigned to 
Fort Jefferson, died in the yellow fever 
epidemic, it was Dr. Samuel Mudd who was 
pressed into service to succeed him. His 
efforts in halting the epidemic led to a 

Saginaw's Dr. Mudd's real interest in his 
Lincoln assassination papers has been to 
clear the name of his grandfather and 
correct the history that dubbed Dr. Samuel 
Mudd a conspirator simply because he did 
his duty as a doctor. 

As a result of Dr. Mudd's efforts, six 
states — Maryland, Michigan, Oklahoma, 
-Massachusetts, Oregon and Florida — have 
had state legislatures pass resolutions ask- 
ing the President of the United States to 
exonerate Dr. Samuel Mudd. 

The research of each state, according to 
Dr. Mudd, conclude Dr. Samuel Mudd was 
illegally tried, convicted and imprisoned. 

In many areas of the U.S. Dec. 20, Dr. 
Samuel Mudd's birthday anniversary has 
been observed as "Free Dr. Mudd Day". 

A pardon for Dr. Samuel Mudd and the 
restoration of citizenship to General 
Robert E. Lee have been subjects for edi- 
torials in a number of newspapers. 

Dr. Mudd feels that justice will eventual- 
ly triumph, not only for Dr. Samuel Mudd 
and General Lee, but also for Mary Surratt. 
He feels he cannot dispose of his 
voluminous collection until after his death, 
as he increases the fdes by 10 to 15 items 

He has a backlog of filing and indexing 
and does much of this work on Sundays — 
which gives him a little more time. 

For the present, a vivid page of American 
history rests at 1001 Hoyt — the couch from 
the Dr. Samuel Mudd home — a page 
familiar to every school boy or girl. It is 
right here in Saginaw. 

7th Year, No. 32 

Advertising— 77&-3260 
Want Ads— 948-43W) 

Wednesday, July 16, 19/5 

fB^j WB^yifgaB SIR'! - 


i ■ I 


i :■ ,i 


II i 

■ I : ' 

1 M 

I I 


•::f- ■ %trms''!*!r~- r^jf 


v 4® } 

f / -• < 

' s» ^^^^ 

• v 

//Vv. / 



..i L j..Wj»l6 Lak».« » .u* ;K . H l t,. J . ,^:,;. ; ^ , .^)» ^i >i tf . ~ l7i-. ' .-.V. vi'illaf * £. 9 -..■-.-'»- 'v^JukA»»_»*^-.-^»_i i<<i/. 


i '.•••■ i I 

I .' , ■ / 

i V ^ 

Dr. Mudd, the grandson, in Ford Theater's Lincoln box. 

Sentinel Photo by Staff Photographer Joseph W. McCary 










? -Mf\ 

a 7 

4^ E/lf f 


By Hank Plante 
Scnlincl Staff Writer 

The specter of politu-ni assassina- 
tions leaves us with in sver unans- 
wered questions about who was 
guilty, who was innocent, who was 
nvolved or not involved, why these 
murderous deeds were carried out in 
the first place, and hundreds more 
whose answers are buried with time 
and the ashes of the victims--no mat 
ter how recent or historic the slayings 
may have been. 

But for Dr. Richard D. Mudd, 
grandson of that mysterious Mary- 
land figure who treated the wounded 
leg of John Wilkes Booth 110 years 
ago, the answers to questions about 
the Mudd family's involvement in the 
murder of Abraham Lincoln do, in- 
deed, exist. And once again this sum- 
mer, Mudd, the grandson, is making 
his annual trek to the capital and its 
suburbs to vindicate his grandfa- 
ther's name. 

The strange case of Dr. Samuel A. 
Mudd, who treated Booth on- his 
Charles County farm about six hours 
after the young actor shot the Presi- 
dent, is a riddle that found the 
country doctor convicted, prisoned, 
pardoned, dead early from the whole 
experience, and still not yet exon- 
erated from the most famous of 
American assassinations. 

An annual trek 

And so it is that 74-year-old Rich- 
,rd D. Mudd., now of Saginaw, Mich., 
makes his annual trips to Washing- 
ton, to his daughter and son-in-law, 
John and Mary McHale in Camp j 
Springs, and to Booth's escape routes 
through Prince George's, St. Mary's 
and Charles counties to lobby for his 
family name. 

Like his famous grandfather and 
his father, Richard Mudd is an M.D. 
(who also holds a Ph.D. in history), 

and has made a life-long project of 
officially clearing the details of one of 
the most questionable acts of justice 
in our history books. 

The current Dr. Mudd's mission is 
full vindication. Be it through a Pres- 
idential proclamation, an Act of Con- 
gress or merely getting various state 
legislatures to pass resolutions urg- 
ing the old doctor's exoneration (six 
states have done so already, includ- 
ing Maryland). 

The riddle surrounding Dr. Mudd 
was put somewhat to rest when Con- 
gress passed a 1954 bill to erect a 
monument to the man-if nothing else 
than because of the way he and the 
seven other alleged "conspirators" 
were treated and tried by the shock- 
orn government, 
j That monument, erected in 1961 as 

a plaque, now rests within the 10-foot 
thick walls of the prison 60 miles off 
the coast of Key West, Fla., where 
Mudd spent four years in the most 
Inhumane conditions of the time. 

fever epidemic 

It was an epidemic of yellow fever 
at that prison, in the Dry Tortugas, 
(hat led Mudd to help the other pris- 
oners and guards-and that brought 
about his pardon by Lincoln's succes- 
sor, President Andrew Johnson. 
" But a pardon still implies guilt, 
and so Mudd the grandson's annual 
lobbying and historical visits here are 
dedicated to having the man pro- 
claimed a real American hero. 

In the past, he has tried, somewhat 
unsuccessfully, appeals to the White 
House, digging up Booth's grave {un- 
marked in Baltimore's Greenmount 
Cemetery), getting the South Capitol 
Street Bridge named after the old 
physician, publishing two private 
books on the Mudd-Booth-Lincoln 
connection, giving hundreds of lec- 
tures on the topic over the years, and 
researching the handwritten records 
of the affair with the surgical eye of a 

But all to little avail. The last step, 
he sees, is a current move by retiring 
Michigan Sen. Philip A. Hart, D, who 
is working for a Presidential procla- 
mation vindicating Sam Mudd. 

Sitting in the President's Box at 
Ford's Theatre in Washington last 
week, where the era of assassinations 
began in America on April 14, 1865, 
Richard Mudd talked about some of 
the uncanny circumstances that led 
from treating an injured stranger's 
leg to fracturing a humble doctor's 

"Here was a simple country doctor 
doing his work, and a man with a 
broken leg comes in... 

"False whiskers, wearing a shawl, 
claiming he was thrown by a horse. It 
was Holy Saturday and these were 
good Catholics-with farm chores to 
do, the medical practice, the stuffing 
of the ham for Easter, and I really 
don't think Dr. Mudd recognized 

Met him before 

While they had indeed met twice 
before, having lived about 70 miles 
from each other in Charles County, 
that connection between Booth and 
Mudd, and the fact that Mudd did in- 
deed treat the disguised Booth, were 
the only facts of evidence the doctor 
was prosecuted on--coupled with the 
testimony thar the physician had 
some outspoken views in favor of the 
South's position, as many Mary-: 
landers at the time did. 

The Mudds were a respectable 
family who reportedly came to 

a : 

America as early as 1633 aboard the 
Ark and the Dove with Leonard Cal- 
vert, the second Lord Baltimore, 
wanting only the freedom to worship 
as Catholics. 

(The Charles County plantation is 
still held by a first cousin, Joseph B. 
Mudd, who is about to approve a 10- 
acre museum on the property for the 
State of Maryland). 

After treating Booth and his ac- 
complice, David E. Herold, who in- 
troduced themselves at 4 a.m. under 
the names "Tyler" and "Tyson," the 
doctor and his wife put them up for 
the night-knowing nothing' of the 
uproar over a slain President in the 
capital 29 miles away. 

Mudd learned of the news the next 
day in nearby Bryantown, however^ 
when he went to check the mail--at 
the same time that his wife at home 
noticed that one of the awakened 
stranger's false beard was coming 

Later, after Mudd mentioned this 
strange encounter to a relative, Union 
soldiers were on his doorstep the fol- 
lowing Tuesday and by Friday he was 

arrested under the sweeping fishnet 
of the eccentric Secretary of War, 
Edwin M. Stanton. 

Prisoners manacled 

Mudd was held for 19 days without 
being charged and was then tried 
with the others by a Military Com- 
mission, even though the Civil Courts 
were again functioning in Washing- 

The prisoners, including board- 
inghouse operator Mary Surratt (of 
what is now Clinton) were tried in a 
courtroom setting that would spin the 
gavels of 20th Century judges. 

. Under Secretary Stanton's orders, 
the prisoners were hooded, manacled 
and leg ironed; with their ears 
blocked and their eyes plugged to the 
point of bulging. 

Mudd met his lawyer only one day 
before the trial, and, like the others, 

was never allowed to take the stand or 
present statements of defense. 

The Military Commission, compa- 
rable to a modern-day court martial, 
allowed for no appeals afterwards, . 
and allegedly accepted as testimony 
outright lies, innuendoes, half-truths 
from at least six of Dr. Mudds 
former slaves, and, after 21 witnesses 
against Mudd and 60 in his favor, 
found four "conspirators" sentenced 
to death-including Mary Surratt, and 
three to life imprisonment-including 
Dr. Mudd, and one with a sentence of 
one to six years. . > . '• 

-""Curiously, all were sentenced on 
» June 29 except Mudd, whose life term 
was handed down the next day. Later, 
historians blamed that lapse in time 
on the doubt that even the military 
judges had of Mudd's involvement 
beyond helping a wounded stranger. 
After it was over, one of the 
,dges, Gen. Lewis Wallace, was re- 
sported to have explained that he 
thought Mudd's involvement was 
sheer chance. But he voted for con- 
viction, he said, because, "The deed 
is done; somebody must suffer for it, 
and he (Mudd) may as well suffer as 
anybody else." 

Sent to islands 

If all this wasn't enough, the four 
with prison sentences were to be sent 
to a civilian institution in Albany, 
N.Y., but, again under Stanton's 
orders, were sent to the military's 
Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas. 

It was there, two years later, that 
yellow fever broke out, killing the fort 
physician along with many of the 
prisoners and guards. Then, Dr. 
Mudd stepped in and reassumed his 
role as doctor. 

For this, President Andrew John- 
son pardoned the doctor in 1869, and 
Mrs. Mudd paid an alleged $300 to 
deliver the pardon to Florida-par- 
tially because of the unreliability of 
the mails, and also because of Stan- 
ton's powerful hand in all the post- 
assassination proceedings. 

The worn physician returned to 
laryland, his farm being destroyed: 
by the soldiers who arrested him; 
years earlier, and lived 14 years as at v 
quiet, country doctor. 

Ironically, the man who had sur- 
vived all the perils of politics and of 
yellow fever on an island, caught a 
cold during a rain storm in 1883 and 
died of pneumonia at the age of 49. 

Who was involved and how much, 
none of us will ever know, while the 
rumors persist that everyone from 
Mrs. Lincoln to Andrew Johnson 
might have known about the plot 
(which, incidently, was originally in- 
tended just to kidnap Lincoln in ex- 
change for the 35,000 to 50,000 Con- 
federate captives in Union prison] 
camps). i 

Stanton's role 

One figure that looms above all 
others' potential guilt, however, has 
been the Secretary of War. 

"The kindest thing I can say about 
Stanton," the 74-year-old Dr. Mudd 
said last week, "is that he knew 
something was up.. .kidnaping or as- 
sassination or something. * 

"Stanton did not give the Presi- 
-ient any guards. The man who was 
apposed to go with Lincoln that 
night, (Thomas T.) Eckert, became 
the Secretary of War. 

"Stanton was also said to have 

warned Grant not to go (to the the- 
ater), but that's conjecture." 

The innocent victims are easier to 
identify for today's Dr. Mudd. His 
grandfather, of course, but also 
others like Mary Surratt, in whose 
Washington boardinghouse and Clin- 
ton tavern Booth and his cohorts spun 
their web. 

"The dedication of the Surratt 
House (which is next Oct. 2^at 10 
a.m.) is a great move," the ^4-year- 
old Mudd believes. "She was inno- 
cent. 1 can't conceive of a woman of 
her age getting involved-she was 46 
or 47 and a very devote Catholic. 

"I believe she probably knew that 
her son was a runner for the South, 
but that doesn't mean she should be 

What we do seem to know, at this 
point, is that a crazed 27-year-old 
actor named John Wilkes Booth, who 
was earning some $20,000-per-year 
for his talents, tripped on a Treasury 
Department flag during his last leap 
to a stage 110 years ago, and may 
have brought an innocent Maryland 
doctor down with him. 

And the murderer's last words, 
trapped in a Virginia barn on the Po- 
tomac, may have summed up not only 
his own deed, but the life-long exon- 
eration attempts of the doctor's 20th 
Century grandson: 

"Useless..." Booth said lying on. 
Garretts Farm in Virginia. 






g imnle country doctor I 

» '. ■ ■• ' ' •"" 

THE SENTINEL Wednesday, July 16, 1975 


sx£?~~* y X*n 


— . 


V > ^J 





B U 





. * 






• can 



.|H State fa Restore 

Dr. iVlyrSd House 

- Dr. Samuel Mudd- 
% House, located in Charles Co 
and noted for its association 
with the flight of John Wilkes 
Booth, has been purchased by 
the State of Maryland as a 
restoration project of the 
Maryland Historical ' Trust. 
The Trust is an agency of the 
Department of Economic and 
-citi- Community Development. 

The Board of Public Works 
approved the $150,000 General 
Construction Loan which will 
be used for purchase, reloca- 
tion of former owners and 
partial restoration of the 
house. The Trust intends to 
deed the property and its 
surrounding ten acres to the 
Charles County Parks and 
Recreation Department which 
will maintain and administer 
the property as a house mu- 
seum. The Trust will hold a 
perpetual easement on the 











lent . 



: a 




Also Known as Rock Hill and 
M. Catherine, the Mudd House 
at Gallant Green was built 
circa 1360 and is a two story 
two part Victorian farmhouse 
architecturally undistinguish- 
ed. The importance of the 
Mudd House is John Wilkes 
Booths visit there to have his 
broken leg set following his 
assassination of Lincoln at 
Ford's Theatre. Mudd was 
unaware-of Booth's identity at 
the time but was tried and 
sentenced for his part in the 
assassination attempt. After 
four years of imprisonment on 
Dry Tortugas Island off Flori- 
da, Mudd was pardoned for his 
heroic medical service in an 
epidemic of yellow fever in the 

prison. A 1973 resolution of the 
maryland General Assembly 
has passed expressing general 
belief in Mudd's innocence 





I c iu,y^ ... 


Sunday, October 12, 1975 

-wvn^vll •111.11 lima V0U11 

Md. Buys Mudd House 

The historical Samuel 
Mudd House in Charles 
County where John Wilkes 
Booth took refuge after the 
assassination of President 
Lincoln has been purchased 
by the state. 

The State Board of Public 
Works has approved a 
$150,000 general construc- 
tion loan which will be used 
to buy the property and 
relocate the present 

The property will eventu- 
ally be deeded to the 
Charles County Parks and 
Recreation Department 
which will maintain it as a 

The home of Dr. Mudd, 

also known as Rock"riiikin_ 
St. Catherine, was built in" 
the 1860s and it was there 
that Booth stopped on his 
escape from Washington to 
have a broken leg set. 

The doctor, according to 
historians, was unaware of 
Booth's identity but was 
later sentenced for his part 
in the assassination at- 

He was imprisoned for 
four years in an island off 
the Florida coast, but was 
released when he put down 
an epidemic of yellow fever 
in the prison. The Maryland 
General Assembly in 1973 
passed a resolution stating 
its belief in the doctor's 

Chicago Tribune 

November 3, 1975 

C .X) 

ft 6! 

3 en 

-1 en 

fQ I — 

fD en a. 1 

? &ft 

2 o "* 

03 3 

£T en — ' 

re — • 


Dyj en 

</a Cf> 

<J ft B3 

< W < 

ft 7 ' (6 

3: c 2 


en . _; T 

* fi> f ' >—• 

5'c O 

TO g./ 
CL . 

CT en 

£3 cr 

r-«- • M 

■ re 

^ § £ 

03 ""* g. 

en en tr 

_.* 3 


3 co 

ft 03 „. 

s> it _ 

C C o 

cl n. 


= 2> 
S* 5" 

■3" fcJ 

? ' c* cr 
o? _, q, n 

5 ^ g. 

to en cr 

o r* en Mi en 

2. 5" ~ '" - 

^- en 
en ej> 

3. g 


en 3 

3ft T~ ft 
rr 03 o 

03 Q3 O — 

5 TO 

03 (""' ' 

-. o 

rj 3 ►— -s 

5T 5' 2" ra 


03 O 


5" ra o 2 " - 
r^'.T sir. o 

& a| 

cr d ft 

<T> 3 o 

oT- B 



9 c 

ft W „ 03 

~ —. ft en 


a. b 

■ era 



3" 2 

S- =■ •§• ft" 

ft ~ "3 -i. 
3" 2? 2 

o m'." c- 

a en — . " Xi 

O 03 en 

£ 3 2. 
7~ en* Q- 

3 ft 

8 o, 2' 

Cr 5 03 < 

3 Ta 3 . . 
3' o s 
ST a 03 3 

ft 3" 3 g 
CO £ -- S? 

>§ as 

= ?»' 



3. o 

3 3 
•^ ft 

-■n » 

-^J *§ O 

ft 5"t" 

30 a 


ft 3 i V 

3 "*) 

2 © 

ft en' 

*"* 6 


3 *-*" 

£ 3 M > 

S i|§ 

ST— s * 

" ^ ~ 

O ft 8= 

O __0ro. 

3 3". «d 

g < Q. 
—. en 

o 6 

o S, 

9 • r-=c 

3- r. c 3- u. 

ft o 

""■ "S " -r 

— 2 '< »»" 

<n ft 1 ft 

m ■ ' 03 3. 
r. o. §. S 

o _ >- rz 


» ft o 

• rt> c 
03 en 

i — rt> 

2. ~ 

ft" 3 

0> .— 

~ ft CO 

o:S 2. 

ft O o 

^i 03 ' *- 


03 SJ 

• 03 

• H 


; rp 

r S- 

3 5 
8 g 




. Ua tn 
O P 


3" _ 

ffi o 

r* o 

P" r- cr 
ft O f 

(S a! 



2 ft 3 

^i Ofq 




ft 3 

*— &* 

5. "* 

= 2 
S a- 2. 9- 

ft C «Tf 

-~ " ri- 
ft ^ _ a I 
^ So ft : 
°-.ft o.l 

— 2 3 M 

ft c S" § 

2 3 TO 


'-; to 




en 03 

(is a. 

3" _ 

03 3 ~ 

fS ■ ■ 

ft ^i 

ft °' , 

03 3 ft — . 

5 O , (-»■ 

fO <; CTO _ 

pu ./" O -O" 

r*- CD 

C *j _ _ 

"a 3 o » 

O 3' 03 

TO ~- 

ft C 3" 

< C 03 

ft 3k < 

3 2ft) 

2. ""** en CS 


>— ft 



=• E.5 2 ft 
3 — -e O 3" 



* ^h! 

<-»■ O 3^ 

3- c ft 

en'TO en 

TO 3 P 

ft g- 

2- ' 

e«* _ en — 

8 f-S 

2 3-dQ 

03 ($ 

3 ro 

03 fD 

3 3 


o ft 

C Wtw' 

cr c cr 


ft ft o ^ 


cr cr 

- ro 

o c 

C. 03 


<. & S 5 g O =*. 5' 3 

o 83 2 2 — «« '- — 
t. — • a ti 

S" a i 

en' 03 

""5 r 3 £3 — ' 

2.5 e- f; 3. 

3' 93 


ft -^ 

03 03 


TO "? 

^ J2. Pi s 

6 5' ft Er 

~ TO 2 ft 
?r _ 

o 6 [v5 

< B e M 

"» ft 5T 

3. /" 03 — • ^: 

3' ^ _ C -- o 

< 3.' O 


■z ft 2. 

■E. ft s ^ = p- 


1- X3 

03 > 

™ 3 
>*? ft 

ft ET~ er 

-2 X 03 c 

5TZ1 ft -3 C 

' n - ft tf* 3 

_ ft TO 
►-. en 
TO ' 

3 3' O) 


_ o 

&S" 2 

■ ^ __ 

S 2 

— o 

■ D. 03 

:.03 3 g. 55 
o S" 


O TO - 5 O 

TO - 

3 03 

C Ji ' 

3 Co 




3 5 w 


ft C o 

12. 3 o 

U ft 7 

^3 S 
<j 03 12 

,2" ft 
< -a 

03 r * 
3 <5 

0: O 

. =• S3 I 

en 3 

'-i Cl cl 

„ S ,- ' 

ft 3 c 

r- ft 

03 £ 

3" 03 ft 

c 5 o 2"ft 

— Q,S,fl — r 


"^ H 03 ^ 

cr 03 

03 "" 




Wames ... faces 

Legislators ask Carter 
to clear Mudd's name 


In one of history's classic examples of being in the 
right place at the wrong time. Dr. Samuel A. Mudd 
happened to be in his office 112 years ago when a 
disguised actor showed up at hi^door with a broken 
leg. Dr. Mudd set the leg, and was rewarded with a 

life sentence for aiding 
and abetting the assas- 
sin of Abraham Lincoln, 
John Wilkes Booth. Al- 
though Dr. Mudd was 
later pardoned by Presi- 
dent Andrew Johnson be- 
cause of the doctor's 
role in fighting a yellow 
fever epidemic on his 
Florida Keys prison is- 
land, the original mili- 
tary court conviction has 
never been reversed. An- 
other doctor whose name 
is Mudd, 77-year-old 
grandson Dr. Richard 
Mudd of Saginaw, Mich., 
has been fighting for the 
past half century to clear 
his granddad's name. 
Thursday 28 members of Congress joined forces 
and asked President Carter to use his powers to re- 
verse the conviction. They are backed by another 
famous descendant of the good doctor, CBS news- 
man Roger Mudd: "I think Dr. Mudd got railroad- 
ed. As the bumper sticker says, I think he ought to 
be freed." ' 

... , -i..v-.W f .JS»i-.-)«l-, ■ . .„■.-_ .,..>„ . . . 

Dr. Samuel Mudd 

Plea for Dr. Mudd, Who Aided Lincoln's Killer 

WASHINGTON, Aug. 18 (AP)— 
President Carter was asked today to 
reverse the military conviction of a 
southern Maryland physician who set 
the broken leg of John Wilkes Booth, 
Abraham Lincoln's assassin. 

History buffs have long questioned 
the validity of the trial of Dr. Samuel 
Alexander Mudd, who was sent to 
a swampy island prison in Florida 
after being found guilty in the alleged 
conspiracy to assassinate the Presi- 

Mistake or not, the name Mudd 
was immortalized in everyday lan- 
guage with the expression, "His name 
is mud." 

'A Huge Mistake' 

The appeal to Mr. Carter was 
spearheaded by a grandson of Dr. 
Mudd, Dr. Richard Mudd, 77 years 
old, of Saginaw, Mich., along with 
Representative Paul Simon, Democrat 
of Illinois, a biographer of Lincoln, 
and Senator Charles McC. Mathias 
Jr., Republican of Maryland, where 
the Civil War-era doctor lived. 

"They just made a huge mistake," 
said Dr. Richard Mudd. "My grandfa- 
ther should be exonerated." 

The elderly Mudd has appealed to 

Dr. Samuel Alexander Mudd 

several Presidents during the more 
than 50 years he has been trying to 
clear his ancestor's name. 
One of the more famous descend- 

ants of the physician is the CBS 
newsman Roger Mudd. 

The letter to Mr. Carter contends 
that Samuel Mudd had nothing to 
do with the assassination and that 
the doctor, a civilian, was the victim 
of an unfair trial by a military com- 

It also notes that although Dr. 
Mudd had met Booth prior to Lin- 
coln's assassination, Booth was dis- 
guised in a beard when the doctor 
set his broken leg. 

Immediately after shooting Lincoln, 
Booth injured his leg while leaping 
from the Presidential box at Ford's 
Theater to the stage below. 

"Learning about the assassination 
after setting Booth's leg and becom- 
ing suspicious, Mudd reported the in- 
cident to authorities but he was ar- 
rested eight days later," said the let- 
ter to President Carter. 

He was convicted by the military 
commission and given a life sentence 
For his heroism in fighting a prison 
epidemic of yellow fever, Dr. Mudd 
later was granted a Presidential par- 
don. But the Mudd family believes 
the pardon merely expresses for- 
giveness, not innocence. 


1001 HOYT AVENUE Auzust ?1 1977 

SAGINAW, MICH. 48607 AUgUSL ^j(, iy ( ( 

Mr. Mark E. Neely, Jr. ^TA^ 

The Lincoln National Life Foundation ^ :< ^ 

Fort Wayne, Ind. U6801 &° ,, t^ , 

Dear Mr. Neely: r ' <>$&* ^r^ 

ft' 1 .rfi* 

Thanks for your letter just received. I l v 
thought you would like to know that John ^ 

Thompson Hodgen (son of Jacob Hodgen and 
Frances Park Brown) married (Elizabeth)Delphine 
(Delia Mudd) 18^-"! §82) daughter of Sfcafnslaus 
Mudd and Eliza Marshall January, *l sister* of 
John Hodgen iris Saralu Elizabeth Hodgen married 
Elizabeth Delphine's brother - Henry Thomas Mudd. 
The home of Henry Thomas Mudd is one of 

Missouri's famous homes. See the enclosed article - I ma\ 
have sent you one. 

I have no proof that Sarah Hodgen was one of 
Lincoln's teachers. My files have reference to this 
but I cant find them at the moment. 

The catalogues of my books and papers have 
been sent to Georgetown University for photo- 
coping. I hope they will make more than one 
copy. If they do 111 send you a copy and will 
consider publishing it, but I have several 
projects in process at the present time. 

Kindest regards, 

Richard D. Mudd, M.D. 

Mudd's Grove 

By Ric Sides 

From Kirkwood Histroical Review 

Courtesy of Sea Scout Ship #501 

If you're a Kirkwood History Buff, $10,000. If you're wondering why 

you've probably heard about Hodgen would take a $6,000 loss in a 

Mudd's Grove as often as you've single year, it might helpto know J) 
heard of Grace Church. But, unlike ft that Sara h Mudd was tyg daughter. I/*£A" 
Grace Church, most of it's history ise*A'Perhaps _, 'he was just rounding off 

in bits and pieces. It stands at the 
corner of Argonne and Harrison and 
has for more than 110 years. Like 
many of the old homes in Kirkwood, 
it takes it's name from it's most 
famous occupant Henry T. Mudd. 

Mudd probably did not build the 
house. Originally the land was part 
of a parcel purchased from the 
Kirkwood Association from Owen 
Collins and, when the planned 
streets were laid out, became Block 
27 of the Village of Kirkwood. The 
first land auction of the Kirkwood 
Association was held May 29, 1853 
but this property was still held by 
the Corporation at the time of the 
second auction, May 5, 1859. Blocks 
27 and 28 were purchased by John 
Hoffman for $1880. When he sold the 
property_tQ^^ ancis^ Hodgen five 
years later, the price had risen to 
$16,000. It is logical to conclude, 
then, that considerable im- 
provements had been added, 
probably the stately home and 

Hoffman may have been a builder 
or real estate speculator. A Hoff- 
man family was known to have lived 
in the Sugar Creek area prior to the 
establishment of Kirkwood. John 
Hoffman's name appears in 
numerous land transactions. The- 
property for the Kirkwood 
Seminary at Adams and Kirkwood 
Road, 1861, and the property for 
Kirkwood's first public school at 
Clay, Jefferson and Adams, 1866, 
were purchased from Hoffman. His 
own home was at the Southeast 
corner of Monroe and Clay. 

The following year, September 29, 
1865, E^aneis-Hodgen sold Blks. 27 
and 2jr to Sarah Elizabeth Mudd for 

the figures. The Hodgen's and the 
Mudd's had extensive holdings in 
Kirkwood and surrounding, in- 
cluding what is now Kirkwood Park 
and all the way north to about 
Essex, as well as the property sold 
to the Catholic Church when it 
moved from it's original location at 
St. Peter's Cemetery. All of this, 
then, was Mudd's Grove. 

The home which they purchased 
was a large three story brick 
structure. Two tall white columns 
supported a double porch on the 
front and, on the back, the 
traditional galleries or "working 
porches" stretch almost the width 
of the house on the first and second 
floors. Inside was a wide center hall 
through the length of the house 
which separated the two formal or 
"fancy" parlors on the East from 
the family parlor and large dining 
room on the West. Immediately 
South of the dining room was the 
pantry and then the kitchen with a 
fireplace that supplemented the 
cook stove. A stairway ran from the 
pantry door outside up the back of 
the house to the second-floor ser- 
vant's quarters. The cook had her 
own room and there was a larger 
room shared by two girls and 
another shared by two men. The 
latter were probably the stableman 
and yardman. 

Upstairs were four bedrooms, two 
on a side, again separated by a wide 
hallway. The bedrooms to the West 
had a separate entry from the 
servant's quarters . . . undoubtedly 
for a nursemaid to attend the 
smaller children without waking the 
parents in the master bedroom 
across the hall. Every major room 

< 7 L ut^u^ 

had a fireplace, nine in all, and was 
finished with simple but elegant 
woodwork and beautiful plaster 
mouldings. Large windows and 
doors on all sides sent cross- 
currents through to cool in summer 
and the traditional shutters were 
provided to seal out the cold winter 
blasts. Mudd's Grove was un- 
doubtedly a showplace of the 

In January of 1882 the Mudds sold 
their home and Block 27 to Sarah 
and Peter Behr and moved back to 
the city. The purchase price was 
$7000 but little is known of the 
Behr's occupancy of Mudd's Grove. 
They sold it in 1889 to George D. 
Dana. The Dana's probably came 
from New York because much legal 
work was transacted with a Notary 
and the Clerk of the County of New 

Mudd's Grove in 1902 with handsome new porch. 

Henry T. Mudd was originally 
from Kentucky as were many early 
Kirkwood residents. The Mudds had 
lived in Pittsfield, Illinois before 
coming to St. Louis in 1856. It is not 
known exactly when they moved to 
Kirkwood but they are mentioned in 
Ella Bodley's dairy as guests at a 
party held by the Harts in 1862. In 
1864, Henry T. Mudd was the County 
Auditor and a member of the Town 
Board of Kirkwood. Mudd served in 
the State Legislature and helped 
frame the new Missouri Con- 
stitution of 1875. He was Curator for 
the State University for 8 years and 
a member of the State Horticultural 
Society for 9 years. In addition he 
served on many Town boards and 
committees, including the School 

York. There was little of the trust 
between the buying and selling 
parties that had been evidenced in 
the previous sales. The selling price 
was $8000 and later the property 
was transferred, as was the custom, 
to Virginia Dana, his wife. The 
Dana's did much remodeling. About 
1902 they added a porch along the 
entire front of the house that 
matched and blended with the 
smaller ones already there. They 
also added a Gate Lodge at the back 
with a large ornamental gate post 
both covered with Shakes. Still 
later, the upstairs gallery was 
enclosed on the East side. Mrs. 
Dana called this her "Glass Room." 
Then, when Motorcars became 
more fashionable than carriages, a 
multi-car garage was built. The 

Gate Lodge built by Danas, 1902, still stands. 

Danas also divided Blk. 27 into lots 
and erected other homes on the 

George D. Dana was founder of 
the Charter Oak Stove Company 
which was an immediate success. 
He was also active in Kirkwood 
political affairs, serving on the 
board of Trustees and when the 
town became a City in 1899, was 
elected Alderman for the Second 
Ward. After his death, Virginia 
Dana became owner in fact as well 
as in title and in 1908 wrote a strict 
will as to the disposition of Mudd's 
Grove. It was to go to her son Leslie 
with the right to keep or dispose of it 
as he pleased but, "in the event of a 
conveyance by him, to re-invest the 
proceeds of said sale either in real 
estate or personality as he desires 
and hold the same for life in lieu of 
the above property. After the death 
of my said son Leslie Dana the 
remainder of said property shall 
vest absolutely in the children of my 
said son Leslie Dana. . ." Mrs. Dana 
died May 9, 1915. 

Leslie Dana apparently rented or 
leased the house to various tenants 
from 1916 to 1921. It was then sold, 

together with the lot immediately 
surrounding it to Roy Reeves 
Tompkins and his wife 
Elizabeth. Quite a few restrictions 
were placed on the ownership in- 
cluding "... shall be for private 
residence only. No owner or tenant 
other than a member of the 
Caucasian Race shall be per- 
mitted." They held the house for 
only two years when it was sold to 
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence E. Mahan. 
The Mahans made the house into 
a two-family dwelling by placing a 
wall across the front portion of the 
large center hall. The middle parlor 
on the East was made into a dining 
room and the gallery in the back was 
enclosed to provide a kitchen for the 
East apartment. On the West side 
the old pantry became an entry for 
the back stairs to permit private 
access to the upper bedrooms. The 
parlor and dining room became one 
room. The kitchen was made into a 
dining room and the gallery enclosed 
to make a kitchen. The Mahans 
occupied the West side and Mr. and 
Mrs George C. Martin the East 
until 1927. Various other families 
lived in the two-family dwelling 

between 1927 and 1941, including 
Mr. and Mrs. William Summerville, 
Mr. and Mrs. George Lockett, Mr. 
and Mrs. Thomas Price, Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward Lanz, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Irwin. By this time, of course, 
modern conveniences had been 
added to the house by various 
owners. Like most older homes in. 
Kirkwood, bathrooms had been 
installed where space was 
available. In the case of Mudd's 
Grove, the Cooks room off the 
servant's quarters and a sewing 
room upstairs had been utilized. 

In 1941, Mr. and Mrs. Francis X. 
Muckerman purchased the home. 
Mrs. Muckerman didn't like two- 
family homes and immediately 
converted it back into a single 
dwelling. They added a kitchenette 
to the back of the East section of the 
house along with a breakfast room 
with a large window. They also in- 
stalled a small adjoining lavatory 
and, would you believe, an elevator 
to the second floor. It's still in ex- 
cellent condition, replete with tele- 
phone. Bill Lane says it's a handy 
way to move your telephone around. 

Mr. William Bodley Lane pur- 
chased Mudd's Grove in 1955 and, as 
is his custom, tore out those of- 
fending walls that had been in- 
stalled. Where original doorways 
had been covered, he restored them 
with woodworkings that match the 
originals. Except for the necessary 
"moderns" the house is now very 
much like the Danas left it except 
for the alternations on the West side 
made in 1923. The original kitchen is 
now Mr. Lane's architectural office 
and one of the old bedrooms up- 
stairs has been furnished as an 
historic Chapel. The pews, with 
doors, are from the 1830's St. Peters 
Church. The Bible, 1858, belonged to 
Mr. Lane's Grandmother's family 
the Roziers of St. Louis. The Bodley 
children's birth dates are registered 
on an open page. 

Though the grove is long gone as 
well as the Mudds and the vast lands 
have shrunk to a city lot, the stately 
home still stands much as it did a 
hundred years ago ai tne corner of 
Harrison and Main Streets in the 
village of Kirkwood. 

Original twin fancy parlors as they are today. 

Talk about roots 

A+*J — 

xu^> 3-/6 -7V 



Mudd family has them — S^WG pages worth 


' News Staff Writer 

A third edition, limited to 500 copies, 
of "The Mudd Family History of the 
United States" has been published by 
Dr. Richard D. Mudd, 1001 Hoyt. 

The history of 1,845 pages in two 
volumes traces the Mudds from 1640 to 
the present. 

Most famous of the Mudds was the 
other doctor in the family, Dr. Samuel 
A. Mudd, who became involved in the 
Lincoln assassination conspiracy. He 
was the country doctor who treated the 
broken leg of John Wilkes Booth, was 
sentenced to life imprisonment and was 
pardoned by President Andrew 

The life of Dr. Sam inspired a' 1933 
motion picture, "The Prisoner of Shark 

The Civil War conspiracy was not the 
first Mudd-Lincoln connection. 

Mordecai Lincoln, older brother of 
the president's father, married Mary 
Mudd in 1792 at Bardstown, Ky. Uncle 
Mordecai and Aunt Mary had a son, 
Abraham, who was several years older 
than the Abraham who became 

Dr. Mudd's genealogical effort gives 
the family a ringside seat for U.S. 
history. It has produced two 
i congressmen, a number of doctors, 

lawyers, merchants, farmers, engin- 
eers, streetcar conductors and gar- 
agemen — and a number of priests and 

As many as 21 Mudds fought in the 
Revolutionary War and twice that 
number in the Civil War, possibly 21 on 
either side. 

Some. of the Mudds had no children; 
others as many as 18. Among the latter, 
perhaps appropriately named, was 
-, ' Valentine Mudd of Kentucky. He was 
was married twice and maybe three 
times as he continued to have children 
after the death of his first wife and his 
marriage to the only other one of 
record. That second wife was a sister of 
* v his son, John Nicholas' wife, and she 
kecame her husband's aunt by 


- J#% . ^ s 

'.:. -*'f , '. 

"■-?-■ :>*;' '*■■>? ■•/ -, 

&«f '****', \ . 

,' ■•u$Zr>X$.. '}? '"..*. '..'-' 


/ ■ .. 

I>*^«ft^ v,„ 

- x V* 

■< . . .:,: .^ ■ • ;- ■'> 

S ' ":i V'- ¥ 

;>W- : ' .: ■■-■'^ 

j\. ,'.. ** •■»» 

■ ■«;>>■, ,,,.- ,.-.", •■>. -«*! 

nm ■■■* A >' 

if V^- 

3iZ *&£&.*% 

'*>-^-y. i -V""'; ■ 'i'4 

X -•■ ' « K \Sf 

if ■ ^^y^^Jj'JJk 

Dr. Richard Mudd 

There was Bennet Mudd who sent 
George Washington a bill for repairing 
a pump. 

And there was Representative Syd- 
ney E. Mudd, who spent 20 years in the 
House from Maryland's fifth district 
and had a reputation for giving out jobs. 

The story is that an opponent of Rep. 
Mudd charged Maryland was repre- 
sented by five damned fools and one 
damned rascal. This brought Mudd to 
his feet ta protest, "I hope the gent- 
leman is not calling me a damned fool." 

There was Dayton Henry Mudd who 
opened a small store with a J.C. Penney 
and was to become a vice president of 
the extensive chain. And Harvey Seely : 
Mudd made a fortune with a copper 
mine on Cyprus. 1 

There were Mudds who were i 
slaveholders. - '-? 

' When the Emancipation Proclama- 
tion came William Albert Mudd of Ma- 
ryland got a gun and dared the Negroes 
to. leave. The book relates the gun was 
not loaded. 

Donatus Mudd of Kentucky freed his 
slaves when the Emancipation came, ' 
although they uere not covered bv the 

document as Kentucky was not in the 

And there were the two grandsons of 
Benjamin Franklin Mudd's daughter, 
Sarah. Ensign Kendall Carl Campbell 
received the Navy Cross as a fighter 
pilot on the earner Yorktown in the 
Battle of the Coral Sea. 

The other grandson, Captain George 
W. Thornburgh was the first American 
pilot to participate in a torpedo attack 
on an aircraft carrier after the Japan- 
ese attack on Dutch Harbor, Alaska. 
His name was given to Thornburgh Air 
Force Base, Cold Bay, Ala. 

Both grandsons were listed as "miss- 
ing m action." 

In the nearly 2,000 pages many Mudds 
are mentioned. And the author should 
not be overlooked. He was a surgeon in 
World War II and gained the rank of 
colonel. He was also called up for the 
Korean venture. 

Now 77, he puts in a fall day working 
on his papers, working out — handball 
is his specialty — at the YMCA, 
traveling around the country giving 
historical lectures and working to clear 
the name of alleged Lincoln conspira- 
tor, Dr. Sam. 

The lengthy history gives him an- 
other avenue of activity; explaining to 
like-wise minded genealogists how he 
"compded material for the book. 


jKViiidd House EesioraiiOiii 

Stalled In 



Efforts to restore the na- 
tionally historic Dr. Samuel 
Mudd house in LaPlata, 
Md., have received, a 
serious setback. 

The organization that 
owns the property, tha 
Maryland Historic Trust, is 
demanding that the 
county , us opposed to a prb 
vate restoration committee, 
assume long-term respon- 
sibility for the operation 
and maintenance o! the 
sits, once it is restored. 

County commissioners 
i displayed little enthusiasm 

for that at a recent meeting 
with Trust officials and 
members ' of the Mudd 
House Restoration Com- 

The 13th Century farm- 
house is where Dr. Mudd 
set the broken leg of John 
Wilkes Booth, after Booth 
had shot President Abra- 
ham Lincoln ut Ford's 

The commissioners had 
agreed, in n 1974 resolu- 
tion, to operate and main- 
tain the property as a rnu- 

(cor. tinned on pago 4-3) 

udd House Restoration 

(continued from front page) 

seum and tourist attraction 
after restoration. 

The restoration cost, 
estimated at $250,000, is to 
be jointly funded by federal 
and state money. An initial 
appropriation of $150,000 
was used to purchuse the 
house and farmland from 
the Mudd heirs. 

in 1977 a committee 
headed by Louise Mudd 
Arehart, a descendant of 
Dr. Mudd, won approval 
for a plan to administer 
Mudd Mouse by means of a 
private foundation. Tho 
foundation, with national 
membership, was to 


Lion vi 

e pre>;en{ 

mi! tc-i. 
Dtmt.v ads; 
'U'&ied uni 


•ither did s' 
protest the 

iuiw the Hi.;! 
nts I he com; 

recommit tl. 
hi 1 tourisi •■! L 


lust week she would oppose 
any agreement which would 
force the county into yearly 
funding for the site. 

Mrs. Arehart and others 
maintain that the house 
will he self-supporting. But 
Nimmerichter pointed out 
that the Port Tobacco 
courthouse, also envisioned 
as a self-supporting 
tourism site, now requires i 
an annual transfusion of ! 
county funds to puy the J 
utilities. — NK ^| 

roii.' ii'j i 1 h opera; 
iimi \'i 
a n thuri! :•( 

Trust wi 
sioners l< 
,'ic-ive;: to 

huve be* 
fundiim - ; >r the restorr.i '.on r 
may b'<- cut off if l.h<:y don't f 
prijinise to take respon- j| 
sibili! y. Commissioner^ 

boretia Nimmcricht«r ^idMj! 

„ ...m 


August 6, 1979 

Dr. Richard D. Mudd 
1001 Hoyt Avenue 
Saginaw, MI kQ60f 

Dear Dr. Mudd: 

■■ ■■■■ ■ 
Thank you very much for your book, Dr. Samuel Alexander Mudd 
a^H^^c^d^s.. it is a fine addition to our collection and 
will prove useful to reaearchers. 

<* /n ^T* b6 ! n lnundated v ith newspaper clippings about Pres- 
ident Carter and Dr. Mudd. I'm sure that this must be very 
gratifying to you. ' 

Sincerely yours. 

Mark E. Neely, Jr. 

The Dr. Samuel A. Mudd House 

CIRCA 1830 

Listed on the National Register 
of Historic Places 
October 1, 1974 

Deeded To The Dr. Samuel A. Mudd Society, 


March 3, 1983 

Property Consists of The House Museum, 
Gift Shop, Kitchen (s^te restored) and 
some outbuildings located on 10 acres 

The Dr. Samuel A. Mudd Museum and Gift 
Shop are open Saturdays and Sundays 

12 Noon - 4 P.M. 

OperiTate March — Close late November 

Special Tours By Appointment 


MARYLAND. From Route 301, Take Route 5 

at the Waldorf Stop Light to Route 382. Drive 

on Route 382 for 3 miles, then take Route 232 

for one tenth mile. Sign at entrance. 


Dr. Samuel A. Mudd, the ihird son of Henry Lowe Mudd 
and Sarah Ann Reeves, was born on Boarman's Reserve, Dec. 
20, 1833 near his own home St. Catherine. 

His father was the owner of many slaves and considered well 
to do. Sam attended public school when he was 7 years old. 
After one or two years his father secured a Governess, Miss 
Peterson. He continued his education by private tutors till he 
was 14 years of age when he entered St. John's College, Freder- 
ick, Md. After 2 years at St. John's, he entered Georgetown 
University, Washington, D.C. where he graduated with a AB 
degree in 1854. Oct. 9, 1854 he entered Baltimore (Md) Medical 
College, now University of Maryland Medical College, where 
he graduated March 5, 1856. During his last year at the school 
he practiced medicine in the hospital attached to the school. 
On Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 26, 1857, he married Sarah 
Frances Dyer (b. 3-15-1835, d. 12-29-191 1) daughter of Thomas 
Benjamin Dyer and Elizabeth Reeder, of St. Mary's County, 
who had recently graduated from Visitation Convent at Fred- 
erick, Md. They had 9 children. 

About the time of his marriage his father gave him the plan- 
tation "St. Catherine" containing 218 Acres, 1 Rood, and 13 
Perches of Land, which is one of the remaining plantations in 
the state of Maryland that has remained in the family since the 
settling of the Mudd's by the progenitor of the Mudd family, 
Thomas Mudd (1647-1697) 

Dr. Mudd was a 32 year old country doctor, the father of 
4 children (Andrew, Lillian, Thomas and Samuel A. Mudd II) 
when President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Good Fri- 
day, April 14, 1865. by John Wilkes Booth. Booth fractured 
his leg as he leaped from the presidential box at Ford's Theatre 
after shooting the President. 

Booth and David Herold arrived at Dr. Mudd's home at 4 
a.m. April 15. Dr. Mudd examined Booth's leg, had a splint 
made for him and had both him and Herold retire to an upstairs 
bedroom as Booth was in no condition to travel. They left bet- 
ween 2 and 4 p.m. that afternoon (Holy Saturday). Herold was 
unable to rent a carriage for their departure. They left by their 
own horses, down the plantation road back of Dr. Mudd's home 
and crossed over the Zachiah Swamp. They were next seen sit- 
ting on Brice's Chapel steps (this place is off Piney Church 
Road). Their next siting was at Col. Samuel Cox's home at Bel 
Alton, Md. Several days later they crossed the Potomac into 
Virginia and were captured at Garrett's Farm near Port Royal, 
in Virginia. It has been said Booth and Herold were about six 
miles off their plotted course, all due to Booth's injury and 
his need for a doctor. 

Dr. Mudd did not know the real identity of his visitors (Tyler 
and Tyson) nor did he know that President Lincoln was assassi- 
nated the night before. Dr. Mudd was tried and convicted by 
a Military Court for setting Booth's leg and harboring him for 
a few hours. He was sent to Fort Jefferson Prison, Dry Tortu- 
gas Island, Fla. for life, June 29, 1865. He was pardoned and 
released by President Andrew Johnson, Feb. 8, 1869 and re- 
turned home 20 March 1869, Five children were born 
after he returned home; Henry, Stella, Edward, Rose 
DeLima and Nettie. He died Jan. 10, 1883, at the age 
of 49. He never regained his health as he contacted 
yellow fever while caring for the sick at the island prison. 

Booths Route of Escape 
Through Southern Maryland 


Map Sketch, Courtesy of Calvert R. Posey co/author with 
Judith L. Posey — A History of the Role Charles County 
Played in the Civil War. 

■&S e 

1 <s b 
1 §••* 

1 lifts? 


S g g 5 5" 5 


j If Hi' 

W PBS f I 


*9 C? ^ Si Tl 

«5 5- o f g 

.- IT "O v< J. 




Cl CD 

"g 3 

c o _ 

tt (V (A 










End of an odyssey 

Dr. Mudd recalls quest to clear grandfather's name 

News Stall Writer 

When a moving van loaded 
with a couch, a table and boxes 
of papers pulls away from 1001 
Ho\t later this spring, a tear 
mav come to the eye of Dr. 
Richard D. Mudd. 

"I've never cried in my life, 
but 1 may cry on that day," said 
Mudd. the SS7-year-old retired 
General Motors Corp. 

The van's trip from Saginaw 
to a small house three miles 
east of Waldorf. Md., will close 
the books on Mudd's deter- 
mined, half-century-long strug- 
gle to clear the name of his 
grandfather, Dr. Samuel A. 

He was the country doctor 
who set the leg bone 27-year-old 
actor John Wilkes Booth frac- 
tured when he jumped from box 
seats to the Ford's Theater 

stage in Washington, D.C., Good 
Friday, April 14, 1865. 

Seconds earlier, Booth had fa- 
tally wounded President Abra- 
ham Lincoln with a single 

A military commission found 
Mudd's grandfather, who casu- 
ally knew Booth, guilty of 

The panel eventually sen- 
tenced the doctor, 32 at the time, 
to life imprisonment at Fort Jef- 
ferson on remote Garden Key in 
the Dry Tortugas islands, about 
60 miles west of Key West, Fla. 

President Andrew Johnson 
commuted his sentence after 
four years, when Samuel 
Mudd's fellow prisoners peti- 
tioned for his release. 

He had led the fight to control 
an outbreak of yellow fever at 
Fort Jefferson that killed the 
prison's doctor. 

Richard Mudd never met his 

Nevertheless, the Saginaw 
physician has spent 70 years 
studying the Lincoln assassina- 
tion and his ancestor's ordeal. 

For most of those years, the 
retired GM doctor aimed to ob- 
tain a full pardon for his 

"I've been fighting the gov- 
ernment to get Dr. Mudd de- 
clared innocent since 1933," he 

He wrote to congressmen, 
presidents and state 

In 197'J, his efforts for vindica- 
tion ended with a letter from 
President Jimmy Carter stating 
that although he did not have 
the authority to grant a pardon 
from a military commission's 
verdict, he did believe Samuel 
Mudd was unjustly accused and 

"In deference to President 

Please see MUDD, Page A-4 Dr. Richard D. Mudd: a long campaign. 

News Stall/ Don Dtm*ri 



3 / 



Continued from Page A-1 

Carter" Mudd said, "I won't take 
any further action. He went farther 
than any other president." 
J In addition to Carter's statement 
- initially delivered to television 
newsman Roger Mudd, a distant 
relative of the Saginaw doctor - 
Richard Mudd has collected reso- 
lutions backing vindication for his 
grandfather from legislatures of 
Seven states, including Michigan 

iJ, e !u" wi " take the P a P e «-s that 
led to those resolutions and other 
Samuel Mudd memorabilia from 
the Saginaw man's residence to a 
new museum in his grandfather's 
former home. 
"I feel a great obligation," Mudd 


"The government (U.S. Depart- 
ment of Interior) spent $290 000 to 
restore the house." 

Mudd's "permanent loan" to the 
Dr. Samuel A. Mudd Society Inc 
includes the couch on which Booth 
rested while the doctor mended his 

■ Also on its way to Maryland is a 
finely detailed table, inlaid with a 
variety of woods, that Samuel 
.Mudd crafted while in prison 

"It's going to be a sad day when I 
*ave : to deliver up these things," 
Mudd said. 

: Before he does, the Saginaw 
County Historical Society will host 
"an exhibit of his collection 

The showing, at the Castle Build- 
ing, 500 N. Federal, opens Wednes- 
day April 15, after a Tuesday 
April H, reception sponsored by 
the historical society, the Saginaw 
City Council and the Saginaw 
County Board of Commissioners 
• "He's really become a well- 
■known authority - internationally 
-on the Lincoln assassination" 
;said Evelyn Shields, a local histori- 

an and Humanities professor at 
Delta Community College 

"Scholars come from ail over to 
study his files, "Shields said 

Mudd, who received his doctor- 
ates in medicine and history at 
Georgetown University in Wash- 
ington, D.C., estimated that nis 
files contain about 1.5 million docu- 
ments relating to his grandfather 
family and the Lincoln 
assassination. ^<"<-oin 

His research is so detailed that 

he talks of his grandfathers loose 
ties to Booth as if they are last 
year's events. 

The year prior to Lincoln's as- 
sassination Booth had arrived at 
Waldorf and inquired about buying 
ahorse, Mudd said. B 

"Dr. Mudd had the misfortune to 
^ aku Pf" d say that his neighbor 
had a fast horse ...with one iye" 
Mudd explained. "Apparently 
£°J5 sa <*? d out for thenight at 
Dr. Mudd's home." 

3 ^f,r Uel Mudd again met Booth 
about six months before Lincoln's 
shooting on the streets of Washing- 
ton, D.C Mudd said. The two Ob- 
serving Southern custom, had two 
said getner before Parting, he 

Dr.Mu O d S d'* 0thingSalmOStburied 

uef M a HH" tly f n0t Working in S^- 
uel Mudd's favor at the military 

commission's hearings, Mudd 
said was his relation to the dead 
president's uncle. 

A 2,000-page family history that 
Mudd authored notes that Morde- 
cai Lincoln, older brother of Abra- 
ham Lincoln's father, married 
Mary Mudd in 1792 at Bardstown 

The Lincoln-Mudds had a son 
who they named Abraham 

He was several years older than 
his cousin, the president. 

Grandson battles 
to clear physician 

In this 1960 photo (left), Richard Mudd, MD, PhD, sits with his wife, Rose Mane, on the 
settee on which Dr, Mudd says his grandfather, Samuel A Mudd, MD (above left), set John 
Wilkes Booth's leg, which broke when Booth leaped from the presidential box after 
shooting President Abraham Lincoln. Dr. Mudd (above right), displays much memorabilia of 
his grandfather in his Michigan home. Dr. Mudd holds the key to his grandfather's cell at 
Fort Jefferson, where he was held for almost four years before he was pardoned. The 
pitcher and basin at right is set on a table made by Dr. Mudd during his imprisonment. 
Behind Dr. Richard Mudd are pictures of Booth, the pistol and ball used to kill Lincoln, and 
above the pistol, a view of the fragments of Lincoln's shattered skull. 

MD fights to prove grandfather's innocence in plot against Lincoln 

The bloody American Civil 
War ended when Confederate 
General Robert E. Lee surren- 
dered to his Union counterpart, 
Ulysses S. Grant, at Appomattox 
Courthouse, Va., on April 9, 
1865. Still, as the guns fell silent, 
one last, tragic chapter was to be 
written: the assassination of the 
1 6th president of the United 
States — Abraham Lincoln, the 
first American chief executive to 
be murdered while in office. 

The assassination of President 
Lincoln by an actor named John 

Wilkes Booth occurred almost 
122 years ago, on April 14, 1865, 
at Ford's Theater in Washington, 
D.C. Yet questions about the 
event persist. 

One in particular still captures 
the public imagination. It in- 
volves a Southern Maryland 
physician, Samuel A. Mudd, 
MD, who treated Booth for a 
broken leg he received while es- 
caping from the assassination 
scene. Dr. Mudd was convicted 
and sent to a military prison for 
his alleged participation in the 

plot to assassinate Lincoln, but 
he has always had staunch de- 
fenders — people who contend 
that the physician's only 
"crime" was that he gave medi- 
cal assistance to a stranger who 
came to his door. 

Dr. Mudd was once so widely 
reviled that his name apparently 
gave rise to the expression, 
"Your name will be Mudd." But 
although he has never been offi- 
cially exonerated, today il is 
widely accepted that Dr. Mudd 
was innocent of complicity in 

the assassination plot. The man 
largely responsible for this 
change in public view is his 
grandson, Richard Dyer Mudd, 
MD, PhD, who estimates that he 
is one of roughly 18 Dr. Mudds 
to have been produced by the 
Mudd family since it moved to 
Maryland in 1665. 

DR. R.D. MUDD, 86, lives in 
Saginaw, Mich. He was born in 
Anacostia, which is just on the 
District of Columbia border with 
Maryland, where his father prac- 



Sl££V£S ... Or Curtis cut oil tin cuffs anil 
Atpt ttieiri in this envtlope 

! t 


Dr. Curtis tounJ this 
splinter of bans on 
tils sura/col insfiu ■ 

n hrirtiwaiatimtri. r - A nit^ifrm 

Physical evidence (top 
left) of Lincoln's assassina- 
tion is on display at the 
Ford s Theater Museum in 
Washington. D.C. John 
Wilkes Booth (below) caught 
the spur of his boot in the 
flag hanging off Lincoln's 
box. thereby breaking his 
leg. Booth later sought out 
Dr Mudd for medical 
treatment, whom he had mot 
on two prior occaiaona 
Dr. Mudd was convicted as a 
co-conspiuiiur and spent 
almost tour years in the cell 
behind this prison door 
(bottom left) 

liced medicine. He was born in 
1901 and received his under- 
graduate, graduate, and medical 
degrees from Georgetown U. 
He retired 22 years ago after 
having been with General Mo- 
tors since 1928 as an industrial 
physician and as medical direc- 
tor lor various divisions. 

For more than 50 years. Dr. 
Mudd has waged a relentless 
fight with the federal govern- 
ment over his grandfather's case. 
The highlight of his efforts came 
in a formal document titled "Pe- 
tition to the President in the 
Case of Dr. Samuel A. Mudd." 
originally sent to the White 
House on Sept. 9, 19(>8. in the 
closing days of President Lyndon 
lohnson's Administration, and 
rewritten and resubmitted to 
Presidenl Richard M. Nixon on 
Oct. 2H. 1970. In this thick, inul 
tipage brief. Dr. Mudd present 
ed letters, documents, state- 
ments, quotes from books, and 
legal opinions to lustily his con- 
tention that his grandfather wi- 
innocent, unjustly jailed, and de- 
serving of exoneration of all 
4)1. inie in the conspiracy to assas 
sinate Lincoln. 

Dr. S.A. Mudds story begins 
with his birth m Maryland on 
Dec. 20. 1833. He was educated 
in the local school and by tutors 
.it home until he entered St. 
lohn's ( ollcge, Frederii k Md 
..I age 14. In IBS I at age l«. he- 
entered Georgetown U.. Wash- 
ington D.C, and attended there- 
until 111", I He entered Haiti 
I College nn ll 
md. m IHS-I .in.l 

M,i. I, I..".' 
,.i Ml i .1. i;n 



,„.., i 



him In hi- 
mil.-. ii. .m Washington ib il 
loin lo li\e miles e.lsl ill the ill 
i.-. i i. .iii.- hi Hi.- I'oloniai H. m 
Washington through Maryland 
IS\ IBfiS. Dr Mudd had low 
ihildren ..iv- 7 ., . and I 
111, an.,- I is el then i a. ml.! I .1 

ei be. ,,ii Ml ) and lather I 

R 15 Mudil 

1 HIS OK. MUDD . ,iil, ii . 
Ih. H Ins gianillalhei n„ I 

iinlv i lore [hi is 

ii.ui ,u I'i.-siiI.-i,i I in, olu I- tli 
t onrmued on ni ■ 


Dr. Mudd... 

Continued from preceding page 
times accidentally. 

The first meeting was in October or 
early \o\ ember. 1864, while Dr. Mudd 
was attending Mass at St. Mary's Catholic 
Church at Br\anlown. the nearest com- 
munit\ ot any size to Dr. Mudd s home. 
Booth v\as lr\mg to purchase a last horse. 
Dr. Mudd happened to mention that 
his neighbor had a one-eyed horse which 
was \ery last that he wished to sell," says 
the current Dr. Mudd. "It he. Booth, 
would care to come by the house, he. Dr, 
Mudd. y\ouid introduce him to the neigh- 
bor. Booth did that and unfortunately 
bought the horse." The horse was the 
one used h\ Booth's co-conspirator Lewis 
Paine on the night ot the assassination, 
when he went to Secretary tit State Wil- 
liam Seward's home to attempt to kill 

Dr. Mudd met Booth again on Dec. 23, 
1864, when he yvent to Washington to 
buy a stove tor his wife. "He was walking 
down Pennsylvania Avenue and along 
tomes this man that he'd seen back in 
October or November It was Booth, who 
said. Dr. Mudd, do you know |ohn Sur- 
raltr " Surratt. although later found inno- 
cent ot complicity in the plot lo kill Lin 
toln, was the son ot Mary Surratl, who 
was convicted oi participating in the con- 
spiracy and hung. 

THE THIRD, and most ill-taled, meeting 
came alter the assassination. 

The conspirators originally had intend- 
ed to kidnap President Lincoln to hold 
him as ransom lor the release ot Confed- 
erate prisoners. Dr. R.D. Mudd contends. 
But y\hen General Lee surrendered, 
Booth replaced the kidnap plan with one 
to assassinate Lincoln, General Grant, 
and Secretary ot State Seward — who was 
slabbed on the night Lincoln was assassi- 
nated, but survived. 

After shooting Lincoln at Ford's Theater 
on Friday. April 14, Booth galloped oft on 
horseback, intending to head straight lor 
the Potomac. Dr. Mudd believes. He says 
thai his grandfather s house was too tar 
from Washington and Booth's escape 
roule to have figured in Booth's plans. 

Bui Booth had not planned on breaking 
his leg. Leaping from the presidential box, 
where he had just shot Lincoln, he caught 
his spur in the U.S. Hag and tell six feet to 
the stage below. 

'If Booth had not broken his leg, he 
certainly would not have delayed his 
flight to visit a doctor," says Dr. R.D. 

Having done so, however, says Dr. 
Mudd. Booth knew he had to see a doc- 
tor — and remembered Dr. Mudd. He 
arrived at my grandfather's home at 4 
a.m. [on April 15], highly disguised, and 
t ame in, accompanied by David Herold 
[one of the other alleged conspirators, 
later hung). Herold said, My friend fell 
oil a horse and broke his leg.' They gave 
fictitious names; Tyler [Booth] and Tyson 
[Herold]. Dr. Mudd later swore that he 
didn t recognize them." 

DR. MUDD ALLOWED the ailing Booth 
10 stay in his guesl room until mid-after- 
noon. Mednwhile, he and Herold yvent 
druund the neighborhood trying unsuc- 
cessfully to rent a carriage, because Dr. 
Mudd had advised Boolh lo continue by 
carriage if he could. 

Later thai day. Dr. Mudd went to 
Bryanlown to pick up his mail and, lor the 
first time, learned of the assassination. 
But the troops searching for Lincoln's as- 
sassin were not looking tor a man with a 
broken leg. Saying nothing. Dr. Mudd re- 
turned to his home and talked the situa- 
tion over with his wile. 

The following day, April 16, 1865, was 
two days alter President Lincoln had 
been shot- Communications, except by 
horseback, were non-existent. Thus the 
next opportunity Dr Mudd had lo notify 
anyone about the two men came that 
morning — Easter Sunday — when he 
and his wile went to church. 

Dr. Mudd believes that it yvas a great 
misfortune that, rather than go to his usu- 
al church in Bryantown, on this Easter 
Sunday Dr. Mudd chose to attend St. Pe- 
ter's Church, yvhich yvas only tour miles 
from his home. 

"II he'd gone to Bryantown, he'd have 
told the troops himself that he had two 
suspicious characters under his roof," 
says Dr. Mudd. 

INSTEAD, DR. S.A. MUDD went to an 
early church service at St. Peter's, where 
he told a distant cousin, George Dyer 
Mudd, MD, about the two people who 
had visited him. 

Says the current Dr. Mudd: "Dr. 
George Dyer Mudd wenl back to Bryan- 
town and casually said, 'My cousin has 
two suspicious people, and he thinks you 
ought to come to investigate.' But every- 
body was reporting suspicious people, 
and the olficers — who had so many such 
reports to investigate — waited until 
Tuesday, April 18, to come to my grand- 
father's house " 

When the officers finally arrived, Dr. 
Mudd fold them what he knew. Several 
days later, Lincoln's assassin still had not 
been found, and the troops began re- 
chet king their leads. 7 hey returned It) Dr 
Mudd's farm on April 21. 

Dr. Mudd says, "At this time Dr. Mudd 
said, 'I forgot lo tell you when you were 
here before thai the boot this man took 
oil is under the bed here.' The boot had 
J. Wilkes' inscribed in it. The soldiers 
asked, 'Doctor, why did you scralch out 
the name Booth?' To which he replied, 
'I've never looked at it.' 

"He was told to come to Bryantown 
the next day to give them a statement," 
says Dr. Mudd. "He did — a 2,000-word 
statement." He was arrested on April 24, 
but not told the charges against him. Ulti- 
mately the government would contend 
that Dr. Mudd had been part of the con- 
spiracy from the beginning, harboring the 
plotters in his home both before and after 
the assassination. 

DR. MUDD WAS taken to Washington 
and confined on board the Montauk, an 
"iron-clad" gunboat, where he was held 
tor 19 days without seeing an attorney or 
being told the charges against him. Dr. 
R.D. Mudd says. 

Although he was a civilian, Dr. Mudd 
was tried by a military commission at Ft. 
McNair in Washington, along with seven 
other alleged conspirators. Booth is gen- 
erally believed to have been caught and 
killed by federal troops in a Virginia barn. 

The use of a military commission de- 
nied to Dr. Mudd the right lo testily in his 
own behalf. Not even the statemenl he 
had made in Bryantown was introduced 
into evidence, Dr. R.D. Mudd says. In 
addition, there was no appeal from the 
decision of a military commission at that 
time, other lhan lo the President. 

What damaging testimony there was 
againsl his grandfather. Dr. Mudd asserts, 
was rebutted by witnesses for the de- 
fense. One witness, Marcus P. Norton of 
Troy, N.Y., testified that a stranger he 
identified as Dr. Mudd had burst into his 
room at the National Hotel, Washington, 
D.C., on March 3 claiming to be looking 
for |ohn Wilkes Booth. A Rev. William A. 
Evans testified that early in March, 1865, 
he saw a man he identified as Dr. Mudd 
enter Mary Surratt's home. But five de- 
fense witnesses testified that Dr. Mudd 
was at home from March 1 until March 23 
— Dr. Mudd says that nearly every hour 
of his time was accounted for — and 
Mary Surratl's daughter swore that Dr. 
Mudd had never been at her home. 

Dr. Mudd's petition to the president 
concludes, "Many students of the Lincoln 
assassination feel that Dr. Mudd did not 
have a fair (rial. Theodore Roscoe 
summed it up well when he staled in his 
book. The Web of Conspiracy, '[With one 
exception], no contemporary or later his- 
torian would contend that Samuel Mudd 
had a fair trial Certainly he faced a grimly 
prejudiced court.' " 


called for life imprisonment at Albany, 
N.Y. But Dr. R.D. Mudd says Secretary of 
War Edwin M. Stanton changed the place 
of confinement tor Dr. Mudd and three 
other conspirators, probably to prevent 
the prisoners from applying for a civilian 

On July 9, four of the defendants were 
hung, and on (he following day Dr. Mudti 
left by ship with three others, arriving on 
|uly 24, 1865, at Fort (efferson in the Fry 
Torlugas Islands, about 70 miles west of 
Key West, Fla. "It was a prison originally- 
meant to be a fort," says Dr. Mudd. 

Dr. Mudd was placed at hard labor af- 
ter an unsuccessful attempt to escape. 
Then on Dec. 17, 1866, the Supreme 
Court ruled in the so-called "Milligan 
Case" that civilians could not be tried by 
military courts if the civilian courts were 
functioning. "This privilege — trial by jury 
— is a vital principle, underlying the 
whole administration of criminal justice; it 
is nol held by sufferance and cannot be 
frittered away on any plea of state or 
political necessity," the court declared. 

Richard T. Merrick, an attorney in 
Washington, DC, wrote to Sarah Frances 
Mudd that the Milligan opinion would 
certainly free her husband. For a fee of 
$500, Merritk presented Dr. Mudd's case 
to the Supreme Court, but Chief Justice 
Salmon Chase failed to submit it to the 
entire court, and denied the writ on Jan. 
15, 1867, Dr. Mudd notes that only tine 
newspaper — the Baltimore Sun — car- 
ried a report that his grandfather had ap- 
parently lost his last chance at freedom. 

But fortune intervened, in unlikely 
guise. An epidemic of yellow fever broke 
out at Fort Jefferson on Aug. 18, 1867. 
The post physician died Sept. 8, and Dr. 
Mudd was asked lo take over the hospi- 
tal. He did so, acting as the only post 
physician for several days. Afler another 
physician arrived on Sep!. 13, Dr. Mudtl 
worked side by side with him until a third 
physician arrived on Oct. 22. Meanwhile, 
Dr. Mudd had contracted the disease. 

After the epidemic was under control, 
the soldiers and prisoners at Fort Jeffer- 
son wrote a letter to President Andrew 
Johnson commending Dr. Mudd's ser- 

BUT IT WAS MORE than two years be- 
fore Dr. Mudd was finally freed. On Feb 
8, 1869, after Dr. Mudd had spent almost 
four years in prison, Johnson pardoned 
him, stating: "I am satisfied that the guilt 
found by the said judgment againsl Dr. 
Mudd was of receiving, entertaining, and 
harboring, and concealing John Wilkes 
Booth . . . and not of any other or greater 
participation or complicity in said abomi- 
nable crime . . . that the circumstances of 
the ... aid to the assassin . . . are deserv- 
ing of a lenient construe lion as within the 
obligations ol professional duty: and 
whereas upon the occasion of Ihe preva- 
lence of yellow fever at that [prison] . . ., 
the said Samuel A. Mudd devoted himself 
lo the care of the sick and interposed his 
courage and his skill lo protect the garri- 
son and . . . thus saved many valuable 
lives and earned the admiration and grati- 
tude ot all who . . . experienced his gen- 
erous and faithful service." 

Dr. Mudd notes that the presidential 
pardon did not exonerate his grandfather. 
"The difference beiween the two is thai 
pardoning usually means prior guilt," he 

In the intervening years, the family had 
suffered. "There was no such thing as aid 
to dependent children in those days or 
welfare or social services, so his family 
had to depend entirely on their rela- 
tives," says Dr. Mudd. Troops had been 
moved onto the farm after Dr. S.A. Mudd 
was arrested, and they had killed live- 
stock and destroyed crops and buildings. 

Dr. Mudd returned to Maryland on 
March 20, 1869, and tried to resume his 
practice. But he was in poor health and 
was branded as a former prisoner, even 
though the residents of the area tended 
to believe in his innocence, Dr. R.D. 
Mudd says. "Until his death on Jan. 10, 
1 883, Dr. Mudd continued practic ing 
medicine and getting his farm back in 

order. He died of pneumonia, as a result 
of a night call, at the early age of 49, and 
is buried at St. Mary's Church." 

WITH DR. MUDD'S death, his name 
had still not been fully cleared. Two gen- 
erations later, even as a young man, Dr. 
R.D. Mudd believed that an injustice had 

"My father would never discuss it," he 
says. "It wasn't until I was a teen-ager 
that I really began to understand that my 
grandfather had been a federal prisoner, 
because my father and mother were very 
reluctant lo mention it. I can't remember 
thai they mentioned it but two or three 
times in my lifetime, in fact." 

But as a teen-ager, upon discovering 
the story. Dr. R.D. Mudd "realized that I 
was going to be the only defender of his 
by the name of Dr, Mudd. I really began 
to work on it," he says. 

In 1926, he was instrumental in gelling 
an article favorable to his grandtather 
published in The Saturday Evening Post. 
That article helped to persuade Twenti- 
eth Century Fox lo produce a sympathet- 
ic film, called "The Prisoner of Shark Is- 
land," in which Dr. Mudd was played by 
actor Warner Baxter. 

"At liKilly, there were barracudas in the 
area where Dr. Mudd was imprisoned, 
not sharks!" says the current Dr. Mudd. 

THE FILM, WHICH appeared in 1936, 

did much to further the grandson's cause. 
During the decades of the '30s, '40s, '50s, 
and '60s, numerous radio (and later tele- 
vision) dramas about Dr. Mudd were 

On Sept, 21, 1959, President Dwight 
D. Eisenhower signed a bill to erect a 
plaque to honor Dr. Mudd for his role in 
fighting the epidemic at Fort Jefferson, 
and ii was dedicated at Key West, Fla., on 
March 11, 1961. But still no presidential 
exoneration was forthcoming. 

In September, 1968, Dr. R.D. Mudd 
sent the first petition to President John- 
son. But in January, 1969, the Dept. of 
the Army informed Dr. Mudd: "The 
Judge Advocate General has advised . . . 
that the findings of guilty and Ihe sen- 
tence of the military commission, as an- 
nounced on June 30, 1865, are binding 
and conclusive and that there is no au- 
thority under the law whereby a new trial 
or declaration ot innocence can be grant- 

Still, Dr. Mudd has achieved a degree 
of vindication for his grandfather: On July 
24, 1978, the first elected presidenl trom 
the South — Jimmy Carter of Georgia — 
wrote lo the current Dr. Mudd that he 
agreed with him thai his grandfather had 
been improperly tried and that he had a 
medical right to treat John Wilkes Booth. 

All told, the quest to clear his grandfa- 
ther's name has cost Dr. Mudd a sum he 
estimates al more lhan $80,000. He has 
also amassed a huge collection of docu- 
ments on ihe assassination: "1 have a mil- 
lion pieces ol paper on Lincoln and 
500,000 pieces on Boolh." Many ot these 
items were sifted from reports made by 
his cousins and papers on the Lincoln 
assassination that have never been pub- 
lished. The colleclion has been willed to 
the library at Georgetown U. in Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

In his petition It) Ihe President, Dr. R.D. 
Mudd wrote, "Dr. Samuel A. Mudd has 
been a hero lo millions of Americans. 
Persons from all walks of life visit his 
home near Waldorf, and make the long 
journey to Fort Jefferson to visit his prison 

"I feel that America has very few he- 
roes — such as MacArthur and Lincoln," 
he says. "I believe he'll be cleared, but 
not exonerated. What I think can and will 
happen is that Congress will pass a reso- 
lution slating that, in its opinion. Dr. 
Mudd was nol guilty. The President will 
not exonerale him, bul simply approve 
the resolution." — Blaine Taylor 

Taylor, a Baltimore free-lance writer in- 
terested in politics, history, biography, 
medicine, and military science, was man- 
aging editor ol the Maryland State Medi- 
cal Journal from 1974-1981. 



llllf~2?J?? H Mc Halc 

ifll 4304 Skyline Dr 

Suitland MD 20746 


^^asi^^^tlisu- £s~z^Z^' 

f /f/f 

/Jjt^ 'Jtc+O^ C^r-#L 


( A* J /L^- </£■ 

£^ u ^- x ^ 




/o-dL—^ w 

^=^^ ^ 


5 - ^ - s~^ . 



— a. 


sUst — a 




Q 0^-^_j^<^ 

/~&-ir^ s^Zul-^ 



(5~J ^7 





^yz^^i /&* 






^C*-^ £-*r^ 

J7_ (JL^UZ- ^<-^ 









_ ^ — 

c£X* — c-/ 

■P^ /Y^—2 

/y^jt V^ 7^- 

^^--^-^^--^--js- — tT 

r3*o o «A 

ST 3 




— CO 

Cd o 





HJ0> B 

co 5' -* ot 

CO qj |\3 to 

r* -* ro m 

00 CD 

o g 

-"" CO 

"o o 

CD "* 

CD sT 

r-^ cd 

03 >< CD 

CD CD \± 

CD O < 

- =i CD 

a < cd 

CD | g 



03 "D 


O _ 
03 —. 

= •< 

c_ O 

o c 







C => 3" 

<I> m" ^ 
co 2. CD 

CO 3 v< 

3 ^ «=- 
CD CD < 
$ Z3 CD 

<D < 

ro ro ro 

ro N) ro 
ro ro ro 
■ i i 

CO <T> 0D 

^t oo <j> 

<J> fO -k 
Ol CO o 




CO 3 

O co 

2 Q- 

2 CD 


- * 




co ro ro 
•>j ro ro 
o> ro ro 
■ i t 
-» en o> 
co en en 
-* en o 
co o o 



ro en 

ro ->i 

ro o 

■ i 

en in 

■t* CO 
o » 
o ro 

3JZ J3 





a. o 





































co O 3 $2. 


CD CD Q- co 

-» 03 





ro en ro 2, 
io co ro co 
IO co to 


0> O) en co o> 
o co en 
o en o 
o oo o 

St en en 
_: en -* 







»-*»■■** • |\r\n v i j 

BUXngrial due 

M__» J • youngster, about 16, and I couldn't 

an S anve tO get it out of my mind," he said. 

clear Oranrlfcrr^r'c Presidents Jimmy Carter and 

wear granaratner s Rona i d r^^ sent letters ex _ 

name mav hf»Ar fniir P re88i «g their belief in Samuel 

11CU11C may Dear milt Mudd's innocence, but their per- 
sonal opinions didn't change the 

By Yvonne C. Claes 


SAGINAW, Mich. - Dr. Rich- 
ard Mudd's lifelong quest to clear 
the name of his grandfather, con- 
victed of conspiracy in the assassi- 
nation of Abraham Lincoln, has 
prompted military authorities to 
reopen the case. 

The Army Board for Correction 
of Military Records recently noti- 
fied Mudd, of Saginaw, that it 
would retry the 126-year-old case 
of Dr. Samuel Mudd, who set the 
leg John Wilkes Booth broke when 
he leaped to the stage of Ford The- 
atre in Washington after shooting 
the president in 1865. 

After having the leg set, Booth 
fled to Mudd's home. Mudd main- 
tained he had been unaware of the 
assassination, but a military panel 
convicted him. 

"I never dreamed I'd live long 
enough to see it happen," 90-year- 
old Richard Mudd said of his 
grandfather's pending retrial. "If 
he is found innocent, I don't know 
if I'll be able to survive it. I get 
goosebumps just thinking about it. 

"This will be the first time in 
American history a military case 
will be retried by the Army correc- 
tions board." 

The military sentenced Mudd to 
a life term and imprisoned him at 
Fort Jefferson, on an island in the 
Gulf of Mexico about 70 miles west 
of Key West, Fla. 

Though President Andrew 
Johnson pardoned Samuel Mudd 
four years later, "a pardon doesn't 
change his guilt," Richard Mudd 

Mudd, a retired occupational 
physician for General Motors 
Corp. and the Army Reserves, has 
spent 72 years lobbying presidents, 
Congress and Lincoln buffs to 
overturn the verdict. 

Mudd says his father never dis- 
cussed the case. 

"I learned about it when I was a 


George McNamara, vice presi- 
dent of a Philadelphia bank, joined 
the cause by writing to Sen. Joseph 
Biden, D-Del. 

Biden persuaded the Army to 
allow Mudd to submit an applica- 
tion to retry the case. 

Dr. Richard Mudd, 

assassin's leg, was 

who fixed 
convicted as 

Revisiting a Family Mystery 

Army to Review Case of Lincoln Conspirator 

By Robert F. Howe 

Washington Post Staff Writer 

Until a few weeks ago, Richard 
D. Mudd had pretty much given up 
hope that he would ever chase away 
the clouds of suspicion that have 
tarnished the family name since 
1865, the year his grandfather was 
convicted of helping John Wilkes 
Booth assassinate Abraham Lincoln. 

Richard Mudd, the 90-year-old 
grandson of Dr. Samuel Alexander 
Mudd, has persuaded an Army re- 
view board to reconsider the 126- 
year-old case, arguing his grandfa- 
ther never participated in the plot 
and did nothing more than set the 
broken ankle of a disguised man he 
later learned was Booth, 

"It's a unique case of a medical 
doctor being found guilty of setting 
a man's leg," said Mudd, of Sagi- 
naw, Mich, who has written the 
family history and dedicated much 
of his life to clearing Samuel 
Mudd's name. He said he hopes the 

review board will bring an end to 
decades of injustice by overturning 
his grandfather's conviction of con- 

David Kinneer, of the Army 
Board for Correction of Military 
Records, said the board has on oc- 
casion reviewed decades-old cases, 
noting the restoration in 1987 of a 
Medal of Honor that had been 
stripped 70 years earlier from Wil- 
liam "Buffalo Bill" Cody. But he not- 
ed that the Mudd case was brought 
before the board in the mid-1970s 
and was rejected. * 

Still, Kinneer added quickly, "I'm 
not sure we were correct when we 
did that. We're forever second- 
guessing ourselves." He said it will 
be weeks before the board, which is 
inundated with thousands of cases, 
determines whether. to grant a full 
hearing on the Mudd petition. 

Samuel Mudd, the subject of sev- 
eral books and two movies, already 
has earned reprieves from impor- 
tant corners. President Andrew 


. . . treated injured John Wilkes Booth 

Johnson pardoned Mudd, reducing 
his life sentence to four years after 
the doctor became a hero of sorts 
by battling an outbreak of yellow 
fever in the Gulf of Mexico prison 
camp where he was sent. 
Presidents Carter and Reagan 
See MUDD, D6, Col. 1 

D6 Friday, March 1, 1991 

The Washwcton Post 

Man Works to Clear Ancestor 
Tied to Lincoln Assassination 

MUDD, From Dl 

wrote to Richard Mudd telling him they 
thought his grandfather was wrongly 
convicted. But they added that they 
were powerless to overturn the convic- 

Doubt over Samuel Mudd's guilt is as 
old as the case itself. 

Everyone agrees that after Booth shot 
Lincoln, he vaulted dramatically to the 
Ford's Theatre stage, breaking his ankle 
on the floorboards he once graced as a 
distinguished actor. Hours later, in the 
dead of night, Booth arrived at Mudd's 
Charles County farm seeking treatment. 
- Historians support Richard Mudd's 
" claims that Samuel Mudd did not know 
Lincoln had been slain when Booth ar- 

But from there, Mudd and historians 
part ways. 

"Dr. Mudd said he did not recognize 
Booth — Booth had a mustache and beard 
on, which he hadn't had" when the two 
men met previously, Richard Mudd said. 
Mudd added that his ancestor learned 
Lincoln had been shot the next day when 
he went to town, but returned to his 
farm and discovered that his disguised 
patient had vanished. 

William Hanchett, author of "The Lin- 
coln Murder Conspiracies," said Samuel 
Mudd knew his patient's identity from 
the start and allowed Booth to escape by 
waiting a day before reporting the assas- 
sin's appearance to the authorities. 

"Mudd told Booth to get the hell 
away — that it was terribly dangerous for 
Mudd and his family to have Booth at his 
home," Hanchett said. "And Mudd didn't 
report Booth's presence until the day 
after that. That made him in effect an 
accessory after the fact." 

James 0. Hall, considered one of the 
most authoritative scholars of the Lin- 
coln assassination, agrees that Mudd 
helped Booth escape. He added that 

Mudd, a Confederate sympathizer like 
many of his Southern Maryland neigh- 
bors, was likely "involved on the edges" 
of a failed plot to capture Lincoln the 
year before the assassination. 

But Hall shares his observations re- 
luctantly, noting that his longtime ac- 
quaintance, Richard Mudd, "is a fine man 
who has spent a lifetime" defending his 
grandfather. Hall, like many familiar 
with the Mudd story, says Richard 
Mudd's dedication to his mission is as 
compelling as the historical and legal 
debate surrounding his grandfather. 

Richard J. Mudd, a Washington lawyer 
and Mudd's nephew, describes his uncle 
as "one of the most amazing men I've 
ever known. He's a monument. He 
played handball up into his eighties, he 
raised seven children, he retired from 
the Air Force as a full colonel, and he 
wrote the two-volume history of the 
Mudd family, which is probably one of 
the greatest genealogies ever written. 
The guy has led three lives." 

The younger Richard Mudd also 
praised his uncle for shouldering the long 
and frustrating quest to redress the fam- 
ily tragedy. "What happened to Samuel 
Mudd had a deep effect on the whole 
family — it was a major tragedy," said 
Samuel Mudd's great grandson. "It's af- 
fected the family to this day. Everybody 
tries to compensate in their own way for 
what happened." 

The elder Richard Mudd, a native of 
Anacostia and a resident of Saginaw for 
more half a century, said he did not learn 
about his grandfather's conviction until 
he was a teenager because his parents 
and grandmother refused to bring it up. 

"My grandmother would never discuss 
it because she was so bitter against the 
government. And I don't think my father 
discussed it more than twice in his life, 
he was so angry," said Mudd, who was 
born a few years after his grandfather 
died. He added that his grandmother was 


"It's a unique case," Richard D. Mudd, 90, says of his grandfather's conviction in 1865. 

"frightened to death" when her husband 
was imprisoned and she was left alone to 
run their farm near Waldorf. 

Mudd said he first learned about his 
grandfather's fate when he discovered 
what appeared to be an unread history 
book in his parents' home. It told the life 
story of Samuel Mudd. When he read 

about how his grandfather had been sent 
to a prison island off the coast of Florida, 
chained and left for weeks in virtual iso- 
lation at the bottom of a pit, his mission 
became clear. 

"I just simply could not let it drop," 
Mudd said. "I'd think if it was your 
grandfather you'd do the same." 


His name is 
Mudd and 
he wants 
it cleared _ 

By Richard Willing -j- a i/t^aJk >- 

Gannett News Service 

SAGINAW, Mich. — Today, the 
phone will ring in the seven-bedroom 
house on Hoyt Avenue, and Dr. Rich- 
ard Mudd will shuffle down to his 
basement archive to take the call. 

Mudd, sprightly at 90, will rustle 
through some of the 100,000 papers 
he has and tell again an old story of an 
ancestor shamed and a quest not yet 

In part, it's the story of a historical 
question: Was Mudd's grandfather 
unfairly convicted of plotting Abra- 
ham Lincoln's death? And do family 
members or historians have the right 
to answer such a question? 

See Mudd, page A6 


GNS photo 

FIGHT FOB DIGNITY: Dr. Richard Mudd wants to clear grandfather's name 


From page Al 

The reporter or the grad student or the 
Civil War buff on the phone — they al- 
ways call April 14 — will get the Mudd 

On April 14, 1865, actor John Wilkes 
Booth shot Abraham Lincoln. Booth 
broke his leg in a fall to the stage of 
Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., and 
rode to the Maryland home of Mudd's 
grandfather, a physician, for treatment. 

For simply setting Booth's leg, Samuel 
Mudd was convicted of conspiracy and 
sentenced to life in prison on a remote 
island. During an outbreak of deadly fe- 
ver, the grandfather won a pardon for 
helping treat fellow convicts, but died a 
broken, bitter man. 

Lifelong fight for redemption 

The grandson has worked since he was 
17 to get the grandfather's conviction 
overturned — and an Army review 
board, prodded by a change in regula- 
tions and a letter from a powerful politi- 
cian, may do just that. 

"After 75 years of working on this, I'm 
not holding my breath," Mudd said. 
"But this may well be the last chance for 
justice for Dr. Mudd in my lifetime." 

For historians, Dr. Dick presents a di- 
lemma. Many have met or corresponded 
with him and marvel at his perseverance 
and passion. They like him a lot, but 
they don't like his approach — the pub- 
licity, the pressure on politicians. 

That's no way, they say, to decide his- 

"Dr. Mudd is an extraordinary human 
being, and nobody wants to rain on his 
parade," said Terry Alford, who has 
taught about the assassination at 
Georgetown University, alma mater of 
both Mudds. 

"But the thinking is that although 
(Samuel) Mudd may not have been in on 
the assassination itself, he was right in 
the middle of the plot and the escape. 
The Mudds would like to ignore that and 
write history through politics." 

His grandfather "was never spoken 
of," Dr. Dick recalls. "As a child, you 
knew there was something you weren't 
supposed to ask about, so you didn't." 

Story out of the closet 

When he was 17 and a freshman at 
Georgetown, he found a 10-year-old bi- 
ography of his grandfather by his Aunt 
Nettie. It was shocking and painful to 
learn that Grandfather Mudd had been 
to prison — a "real blot on your name" 
— and for conspiring to kill Lincoln! 

Yet, Aunt Nettie's book made every- 
thing understandable. 

"Here was a doctor who went to a jail 
and was very nearly hung for what 
amounted to keeping his Hippocratic 
oath and treating an injured patient," 
the grandson says. "I was going to be a 
doctor myself, so the point really hit 
home, I decided to make Dr. Mudd my 
life's work." 

While at Georgetown in the 1920s, he 
began to research the 1865 trial of Mudd 
and seven other Booth accomplices. 

Dr. Dick's research also began a long 
trail of publicity — 700 lectures, nearly 

IJ file photo 
ACCUSED: Samuel Mudd treated Booth 

as many newspaper articles and more 
than a dozen broadcasts. He has written 
to Lincoln's successors in the Oval Of- 
fice, beginning with Dwight Eisenhower 
in 1959, seeking to upgrade the 1869 par- 
don to exoneration. 

Pleads to presidents 

Several presidents, including Jimmy 
Carter and Ronald Reagan, wrote back 
to say they believed Samuel Mudd was 
innocent — but because he had been 
tried by a military commission, they 
could not help. 

Last year, Sen. Joseph Biden, D-Del., 
chairman of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, got involved. His letter to the 
Army Board for Correction of Military 
Records, plus a recent change in proce- 
dures, makes it possible for Dr. Sam's 
conviction to be overturned once the 
Army completes an inquiry this year. 

But should the grandson's long cam- 
paign help Dr. Sam avoid the judgment 
of history? James O. Hall says no. 

Hall, co-author of the 1988 book' 
"Come Retribution," says the assassina- 
tion grew from a failed Confederate plan 
to abduct Lincoln. He says Mudd, a 
Southern sympathizer who introduced 
Booth to Confederate agents in Mary- 
land, was "at least up to his knees" in the 
plot. That's why Booth sought him out. 

Booth was shot dead 11 days later by a 
Union soldier in a barn 30 miles from 
Mudd's home. 

But Dr. Dick is angered and a bit hurt 
by the questions, coming so near the end 
of his quest and, most likely, his life. He 
has explanations for the contacts with 
Booth, as well as other nagging ques- 
tions. Some are more plausible than oth- 
ers. He says he'll leave it to the Army re- 
view board to decide. 

But the boy whose family hid a deep 
and painful secret is in the past. In his 
place stands a man who says the Mudd 
family is his own "constant source of 

"My name is Mudd, and I'm proud of 
that," he says with a smile. , 

"I make no apologies." 




25th June, 1991. 

I am commanded by The Queen to thank you 
for your letter of 9th July. Her Majesty was 
interested to know of the pleasure which her 
visit to Fort Jefferson brought to you and 
your family. 


Dr. Richard D. Mudd. 

his leg as he leapt from the 
President's box to the stage 
of Ford's Theater after 
shooting President Abraham 
Lincoln. It was a mis- 
step that altered his es- 
cape route and sealed 
the fate of Dr. Samuel 
A. Mudd. The 32-year- 
old physician practiced 
medicine on his farm 
near St. Mary's Church 
in Bryantown, Mary- 
land, where he lived 
with his wife and four 

He had met only 
twice the man who 
would become Lin- 
coln's assassin: at mass 
in St. Mary's, and 
again by chance in 
Washington, D.C. 

But, according to 
family accounts, when 
John Wilkes Booth 
reached the Mudd 
farm on the evening 
of April 14, 1865, he 
wore a disguise. The 
doctor didn't know 
whose leg he was put- 
ting in a cast, much 
less what his patient 
had done. Booth, who 
left the farm the next morn- 
ing, died of gunshot wounds 
he received during his cap- 
ture 1 1 days later. 

Dr. Samuel A. Mudd was 
convicted by a military com- 
mission of "maliciously, un- 
lawfully, and traitorously 
conspiring" with Lincoln's 
assassin. Sam was impris- 
oned on July 24, 1865, at 
Fort Jefferson on Shark Is- 
land, at the western tip of 
the Florida Keys. His wife, 
Sarah, made several unsuc- 
cessful pleas to President 
Andrew Johnson to pardon 
her husband. 

A few years later, a yellow 
fever epidemic broke out at 
the fort. When the fever 
killed the fort's doctor, 
Samuel look over the care 

of the sick and saved many 
lives. The officers and pris- 
oners at Fort Jefferson 
showed their gratitude by 
petitioning the president to 

son. Richard D. Mudd, was 
17 years old in 1918 when 
he found out about his 
grandfather. "Little by little, 
and despite the reticence of 


How the author's father became the 
champion of his family's good name 

exonerate the doctor. 
"Samuel A. Mudd devoted 
himself to the care and cure 
of the sick, and interposed 
his courage and skill 
to protect the gai 
rison," President 
Johnson wrote 
in his pardon. 
Since Sam had 
been convict- 
ed by a military 
however, the guilty 
verdict could not 
be overturned. 
Sam returned 
to Maryland a 
broken man. 
He died 14 
years later, at 
age 50. 
Sam's grand- 

Richard in his grand- 
father's cell. Top: Dr. 
Richard D. Mudd and his 

wile. Rose, seated. 
Standing, from left, their 
children: Thomas B. 
Mudd, Stella Crowe, 
Richard Jr., Johanna 
Vargas, and Mary McHale. 

my family," Richard recalls, "I 
came to realize the terrible 
thing that had spread its 
ominous wings over the 
Mudds. To do some- 
thing about it be- 
ame the ruling 
drive of my 

Like his 
Richard be- 
came a physi- 
cian. He moved to 
Detroit for an in- 
ternship at 
Henry Ford 
Hospital. He 
got married 
and, in 1936, 
settled down 
in Saginaw, 

Since then, he has helped 
found the Saginaw Public 
Health Association, Saginaw 
Hall of Fame, Saginaw 
Genealogical Society, and 
Saginaw Historical So- 
1 ciety. His efforts to ex- 
| onerate his grandfa- 
i ther also have made 
| Richard a hero for 
1 hundreds of relatives 
g in Maryland. 
| In 1950 Richard 
| published a genealogy 
I that traces his family 
t from Thomas Mudd, 
who came to America 
from Bristol, England, 
seven generations be- 
fore Sam Mudd. The 
list of relations in- 
cludes TV newsman 
Roger Mudd and 420 
other descendants of 
Samuel Mudd. Rich- 
ard also helped gel 
the Mudd farm listed 
on the National 
Register of Historic 
Places. The home was 
opened as a public 
museum in 1983. 

Richard prompted 
Congress to erect a 
plaque near Sam's 
prison cell, and Pres- 
idents Carter and Reagan to 
write letters of support. His 
biggest breakthrough came 
in 1987, when Sen. Joseph 
Biden (D-Delaware) looked 
into the case and discovered 
a Justice Department ruling 
allowing for the review of 
verdicts in trials by military 
commissions. The Army now 
is examining more than 
4,000 documents related to 
the trial. 

"I have hope my grand- 
father's case will be settled 
in his favor," says the 91- 
year-old Richard. "Even if it 
is not, I know my efforts 
have publicized this injustice 
and restored pride to his 
descendants, who will con- 
tinue the fight until it is 
won." -Thomas B. Mudd 



4uX^ a, tilt 

IN PILGRIMAGE: Christopher Mihalchik, 9, looks out over Fort Mudd was convicted of conspiracy in the assassination of Abra- 
Jefferson, where his ancestor, Samuel Mudd, was imprisoned, ham Lincoln and sentenced to life in prison. 

Treated John Wilkes Booth 
for broken leg after Lincoln 
was shot. 


SEVENTH VISIT: Dr. Richard Mudd comments from Fort Jefferson, 
'It always makes me sad to see this place.' 

Did Dr. Samuel Mudd conspire 
with Lincoln's assassin? Or is it 
time to clear his name? 

RY TORTUGAS — The 91-year- 
man sat quietly as the charter 
1 boat approached Fort Jefferson, 
the isolated outpost where his 
grandfather was imprisoned for his part in 
one of the most infamous crimes in American 

"It always makes me sad to see this place 
— a prison out here," said Dr. Richard 
Mudd, who was making his seventh, and 
probably last, visit to the fort. It would be 
better, he said, to hang people than to send 
them to such a place. 

Mudd's grandfatherwas Dr. Samuel 
Mudd, the Maryland doctor who set the bro- 
ken leg of John Wilkes Booth after Booth shot 
President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's The- 

Samuel Mudd was convicted of conspiring 
to kill the president, and on June 30, 1865, 
was sentenced to life at Fort Jefferson, a hell- 
ish, sweltering military prison 70 miles west 
of Key West. 

His name has become a put-down: If you 
do something wrong, the saying goes, your 
name is Mudd. 

For Richard Mudd, of Saginaw, Mich., iast 
week's exhausting journey to the fort was 
part of a lifelong mission. He believes his 
grandfather was wrongly convicted, and he is 
trying to clear his name. It's a family project: 
Eighteen family members accompanied him 
to the prison. 

The Mudd family believes that Samuel 
Mudd was not a conspirator but simply a doc- 
tor following his oath to treat a man who 
needed medical care. They say he knew 
Booth but had no idea he had shot the presi- 

The conviction of Booth's doctor is "still a 
stigma," said Thomas Mudd, Richard's son. 
"The records say he's guilty. And we don't 
think he is. It has to do with honor. It would 
be like a weight lifting off our shoulders to 
have Dr. Sam cleared." 

After a century and a quarter, the family 
may finally have that weight lifted, The 
Army's Board for Correction of Military 
Records has agreed to rehear the Mudd case. 
The family made its latest trip to celebrate 
that decision. 

"Each one of these children that sees this 
is going to be a committee of one to keep this 
thing going," Richard Mudd said. 

"We're doing this (or all the Mudds that 
are here now and are coming along in the 
future," Thomas Mudd said. 

A fateful meeting 

Samuel Mudd, the son of a wealthy planter 
and slave owner, owned a 2 I8-acre farm 30 
miles south of Washington. In November 
1864. celebrated actor John Wilkes Booth 
spent a night at Mudd's home as he was pass- 

ing through town, according to TheAbraham 
Lincoln Encyclopedia, edited by Mark 
Neely. The two men bumped into each other 
again a month later. 

A few hours after Booth shot Lincoln, he 
appeared at Mudd's home. The doctor set 
the leg and made a splint. Several days later, 
the authorities questioned Mudd. The doctor 
said he had not recognized Booth. On April 
24, 1865, Samuel Mudd was arrested and 
charged with conspiracy. 

At trial, Mudd stuck to his story. The mili- 
tary commission overseeing the case did not 
believe it, and the doctor was convicted and 
sent to isolated Fort Jefferson. He tried to 
escape on Sept. 25, 1865, but was caught and 
forced to do hard, outdoor labor, Neely's 
book says. 

In 1867, yellow fever broke out in the 
prison. Mudd, who had a bout with the illness 
himself, took over the hospital and won the 
thanks and praise of everyone there. Two 
years later. President Andrew Johnson par- 
doned him. Mudd returned to Maryland, 
where he served in the state legislature. He 
died in 1883. 

His relatives were not content to let the 
story end there. A decade after Samuel 
Mudd's death, his widow, Sarah Frances 
Mudd, filed a claim with the government say- 
ing that her husband had been wrongly con- 
victed, and asking for money. She got 

In 1906, Samuel Mudd's daughter, Nettie, 

published Lifeof Dr. Samuel Mudd, which 
again asserted that the doctor w 

Interest is renewed 

But only in 192S did the case begin to 
gather momentum. That was when the young 
Dr. Richard Mudd discovered that Mordecai 
Lincoln, an uncle of the president, once had 
been married to Mary Mudd, a first cousin of 
the doctor. The ironic revelation, reported in 
the press, got people interested in the Mudd 
case again. 

Prisoner of Shark Island, a movie about 
the case, was released in 1936. And in 1980, 
Dennis Weaver made a TV movie called The 
Ordeal of Dr. Mudd. 

For Richard Mudd, the case became a life- 
long passion. He even appeared once on the 
TV show To 7W/77ie7n<f/i. 

"The idea just obsessed me. I couldn't get 
it out of my mind," he said. "This is my own 
grandfather. I'm positive that he was improp- 
erly treated. I have a right — almost a duty 
— as a descendant to see what I can do." 

Richard Mudd made his first tnp to the 
Dry Tortugas in 1947, with three of his chil- 
dren. He was starting two traditions: visiting 
the fort with family, and instilling the ambi- 
tion to clear the family name. 

The fort, built after the War of 1812 to 
protect the Straits of Florida, must have been 
a dreary place to be held captive. Made of 


BOOTH SLEPT HERE: The Maryland farmhouse of Dr. Samuel Mudd where In 1865. 
John Wilkes Booth and accomplice David Herold rested while Mudd set Booth's leg. 


Clearing Mudd name 
is patriarch's passion 

MUDD, FROM 1C brie*!! 

and stone, its cells are gloomy and 
bare — almost medieval. The lovely 
park in the middle of the fort was a 
military parade ground when Mudd 
was there. i . 

On the family's latest trip to the 
fort a young man named Samuel £ 
Mudd stood in the cell where his 
great-great-grandfather was 
imprisoned. The dark, dungeon-like 
rectangular cell has two small block 
windows through which you can see 
the bright blue water of the Gulf of 

Mexico. . 

' It' s hard to imagine what it must 
have been like," said the young Sam 
Mudd, who bears a strong resem- 
blance to Booth's doctor. 1 find it 
hard to believe how he lived through 

''Richard Mudd wasn't strong 
enough to take the whole tour of the 
fort But he joined the group at the 
doctor's cell, looking out the tiny 
windows at the horizon. 

"He always has that feeling when 
he looks out that window, like he s 
taken over — possessed — with the 
outrage that Dr. Mudd must have 
felt," Thomas Mudd said. 

Despite their frustration, the 
Mudds take pride in their ancestor s 
connection with a central event .in 
American society. Most of the 
group wore aqua T-shirts imprinted 
with Samuel Mudd's portrait and 
the slogan, "Free Dr. Mudd. 

Proud family 

"Our family goes back a long way 
in American history," Thomas 
Mudd said. "We date a lot of our 

Mudd-ness to Dr. Sam and what was 
done to Dr. Sam by the govern- 

m "I'm proud of the family history," 
said Richard Mudd III, making his 
first trip to the island. "I've never 
been ashamed of the name Mudd 

The Mudds may be convinced of 
their ancestor's innocence, but his- 
torians are still debating Mudds 
role in the event that rocked a 
nation still shattered by the Civil 
War. Historian William Hanchett, 
author of The Lincoln Murder Con. 
spiracles, said Mudd probably didn t 
know Booth was an assassin when 
he set the broken leg. 

But Hanchett believes Mudd 
helped Booth escape after word of 
Lincoln's death got around the 
Maryland countryside. Mudd he 
said, went to town and heard about 
the assassination — but never told 
soldiers the suspect was in his barn. 
"Mudd was an accessory after the 
fact," Hanchett said. "He ended up 
spending about four years in prison, 
and that's just about what he 

Hanchett said reopening the case 
is a bad idea. 

"That's a verdict for history to 
make," he said, "not for a military 

But in their movement to reopen 
the case, the Mudds have won some 
powerful allies, including former 
Presidents Ronald Reagan and 
jimmy Carter and U.S. Sens. Paul 
Simon and Joseph Biden. 

The Board for Correction of Mili- 
tary Records will rehear the case 
not by holding a trial but by review- 
ing old records, said Ma). Joe Pad- 

Heraldflle photo 

Mudd, who has had a lifelong 
commitment to clear his 
grandfather's name, is shown in 
1955 with daughter Johanna. 

ilia, an Army spokesman. But advo- 
cates for each side wul be allowed to 
come in and state their case 

Because there are a lot of old 
archives to go through, the hearing 
won't happen for months, fcchard 
Mudd, who is still recovering from a 
severe case of pneumonia, is hoping 
his health will allow him to be there 
That there wul be a hearing at ad- 
is a testament to Richard Mudd s 
determination, his fanuly said. 

"It means a Jot to get the name 
cleared," said Lisa Mudd Black, a 
goddaughter of Richard Mudd 
"I'd hke to bring up my .tads telling 
them 'Your name is Mudd is not so 




ARLINGTON. VA 22202-4508 

? JUN T991 




Ms. Deborah W. Purnell and Ms. Alison Collins 
Greencastle-Antrim Elementary School 
500 East Leitersburg Street 
Greencastle, Pennsylvania 17225 

Dear Ms. Purnell and Ms. Collins: 

This is in reference to your letters of 29 May 1991, 
which forwarded 10 letters of support from your students 
concerning Dr. Samuel A. Mudd. 

As you no doubt can imagine, Dr. Mudd's case has raised 
a great deal of interest, both in academic circles, as well 
as with the general public. Several members of Congress 
have corresponded with this office as have members of 
several historical societies with strong interests in the 
Lincoln assassination plot. However, your letters and the 
10 letters from the students in your class are most unique 
and interesting. . . 

Dr. Mudd's case is currently undergoing extensive 
research, to include a review of more than 4000 pages of 
handwritten documents in the National Archives. While, we 
are proceeding with deliberate haste, I must confess it may 
be several more months before the Board can even begin to 
consider what actions can be taken in this case. The 
question of jurisdiction of this Board, and the extent it 
can go to "exonerate" Dr. Mudd, if that were determined to 
be appropriate, are of prime concern at this moment. 

In any case, please be assured that your students' 
letters, and your own, will become a part of the record of 
this Board in consideration of the case. A copy of the 
final decision will be provided to you upon completion of 
the Board's actions. 


Ms. Deborah W. Purnell and Ms. Alison Collins 

I have taken the liberty of writing a "first name" 
letter to each of your students. I have included a couple 
of extra letters, in that I only received 10 letters, and 
Ms. Collins mentions that there are 12 students in the 
class. Please give a letter to each student. 

Keep up the good work! 



Davjid R. Kinneer 
ExectrtTive Secretary 

PHWI: 91T - T34-1V 

RSO. NO. AM 2743 148 




«- 7/F/V 


*yh a-v^b--. 

-3(o 1/ 



Road for Mudd Nears End 

St. Mary parish member nears goal 
of clearing grandfather of conspiracy 

C /M 

By Paul Seman 

SAGINAW - Sometimes people aren't what they appear 
to be. 

So Dr. Samuel Mudd couldn't have known that the man 
banging on his door at 4 a.m. on April 15, 1865, would be 
one of the most famous assassins in history. 

Nor could he have known that by caring for a fellow 
human being it would alter his life forever, while giving 
his grandson, Dr. Richard Mudd, a Saginawian and 53-year 
member of St. Mary Cathedral, more than three-quarters of 
a century pursuit to vindicate the family name. 

Richard Mudd, a retired physician and the 91-year-old 
grandson of Dr. Samuel Mudd of Charles County, Md., has 
tried for what seems like a lifetime to chase the clouds of 
suspicion away that have tarnished the family's name since 
the 1865 assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. He 
now awaits a verdict from a military review board that con - 
vened earlier this year If the Army Board for Correction of 
Military Records rules favorably on the request, Richard 
Mudd's dream of more than 75 years will come true. His 
grandfather will be exonerated from any fault in Lincoln's 

Samuel Mudd was a quiet, dedicated and rigorous 
Catholic who followed his Hippocratic Oath which resulted 
in a conviction for conspiracy to murder the president and 
sentence of life imprisonment at Fort Jefferson Prison, Dry 
Tortuga Island in the Gulf of Mexico. 

The doctor, 32-years-oId at the time," opeTie^irrVaoor to 
two men that night. One, apparently in great pain from a 
broken leg, was supported by his companion. The compan- 
ion, David Herold, did all of the talking, and explained to 
Mudd that his friend had been hurt falling off a horse. Mudd 
treated the man and told them both to retire to an upstairs 
bedroom because the injured man could not travel. 

While Samuel Mudd was on his medical rounds that day, 
he learned that President Lincoln had been assassinated. 
When he returned home, he found both men leaving. While 
the injured man walked out the door, Mudd noticed the fake 
beard beginning to peel off his face. 

The next day after Easter Mass, Mudd asked his cousin, I 
Dr. George Dyer Mudd, to notify the authorities about the 
two suspicious men. 

(Continued on Page 3) 

Road Nears End 

(Continued from Page 1) 

Soldiers were soon in pursuit of the two men, and 
Samuel Mudd was arrested for treating John Wilkes Booth, 
who broke his leg when he leaped from the presidential box 
to the stage of Ford's Theater after shooting Lincoln. 

Even though Mudd had met Booth twice before, he 
claimed [hat he did not recognize Booth that night. > 

Historians support Richard Mudd's claims that Samuel 
Mudd did not know Lincoln hod been killed when Booth ar- 

Samuel Mudd, who was pa|d a more than adequate wage 
of 525 from Booth for the medjeal service, was charged as a 
co-consplrator in the assassination. 

Samuel Mudd, escaping Ranging because of a strong 
court defense from his attorney, General Thomas Ewing, a 
fellow Catholic, was tried and convicted by a military court 
for setting the leg and for harboring Booth and his compan- 
ion for a few hours. 

President Andrew Johnson pardoned Mudd in 1869, re- ,; 
ducing his life sentence to four years after the doctor sue-' 1 
cessfully battled an outbreak of yellow fever in the military * 
prison. » 

After his pardon, the father of nine returned to Charles 
County where his wife, Sarah Frances Dyer had struggled to [, 
keep the family farm afloat during the doctor's absence. But , 
Mudd had rzver regained his health and died in 1883 at the i 
age of 49. He was buried at Sl Mary's parish cemetery in , 
! Bryantown. 

"When I realized that my grandfather had been railroaded, 
I just couldn't get it out of my mind," said Richard Mudd, a 
retired plant physician for General Motors, a graduate of 
Georgetown University, a retired U.S. Air Force colonel and 
a member of Fr. James D. Kenny K.C. Council 593 in 
Saginaw. "In 1926, I helped a writer prepare a story on my 
grandfather for the Saturday Evening Post. That started the 
ball rolling." 

Richard Mudd believes the reason why his grandfather 
had been wrongly convicted was clear-cut. 

"There were three strikes against Dr. Mudd," Mudd said. 
"First of all, he was a slave owner. Secondly, his name was 
Mudd, that's bad, and thirdly, he was a Catholic." 
. . 'It's a unique case of a medical doctor being found guilty 
of selling a man's leg," he added. 

Since Mudd's pursuit to clear his grandfather's name of 
any suspicion, two films about Samuel Mudd, "The 
Prisoner of Shark Island" and "The Ordeal of Dr. Mudd" 
were produced, schools and museums were named for him, 
and a monument was erected in his honor 

Richard Mudd, who has been a member of various clubs 
and organizations in the church, also has a modest collec- 
tion of letters from U.S. presidents and congressmen who 
believe his grandfather was wrongly convicted. Among 
: those. Presidents Carter and Reagan wrote to Richard Mudd 
telling him they thought his grandfather was indeed inno- 
cent of any wrongdoing, but that they were powerless to 

Now Mudd waits on a verdict from an Army review 
board, which is still in the process- of reaching a verdict. 
This review is the first time in U.S. history a military 
commission case will be retried by the Army corrections 

Until that time, Mudd will continue to lecture on the 
Case and aspects of the assassination, which he has done in 
the time since he started his campaign and in most of the 
: states. 

"I never dreamed I'd live long enough losccit happen," 
Mudd said. "If he is found innocent, I don't know if my 
blood pressure wjll take It, I get goose bumps just thinking 
about It" 

JULY 25 



"My dad decided to send us away and he 

wanted my mom to go too, but she wouldn't 

leave him. Now we just hope and pray they're 

still alive." 

— Hidajet Efendio, 13, 
a refugee from Bosnia-Herzegovina. 



Centers for Disease Control 
discusses a plan that women 
capable of becoming 
pregnant consume folic acid 
to prevent spina bifida. 

No break given to doctor who set Booth's leg 

DETROIT (AP) — Samuel Mudd's 
descendants have lost again in their 75-year 
struggle to exonerate the doctor who set 
John Wilkes Booth's broken leg after the 
assassination of Abraham Lincoln. 

Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army 
William D. Clark rejected setting aside 
Mudd's conviction, turning aside the recom- 
mendation of the Army Board for Correc- 
tion of Military Records. 

"It is not the role of the (board) to settle 
historical disputes," Clark ruled. 

Mudd was convicted as a co-conspirator 
in the April 14, 1865, shooting and sen- 
tenced by a military commission in 1865 to 
life in prison. 

His family has fought to clear his name 
ever since, insisting he didn't know Booth 
was an assassin when he treated him. 

Clark's rejection was unexpected, said Dr. 
Richard Mudd, 91, who has tried for many 
years to clear his grandfather's name. 

"I am devastated, and I am shocked and 
so are the 505 descendants," Mudd said yes- 
terday from his Saginaw, Mich., home. 
"We're just going to keep on trying." 

Mudd heard the decision yesterday by 
telephone from David Kineer, head of the 
Army Board of Correction of Military 

Candida Ewing Steel, the Mudd family's 
attorney and the great-great granddaughter 

of Gen. Thomas Ewing Jr., who was Samuel 
Mudd's defense lawyer, was uncertain where 
the Mudds could appeal. 

Samuel Mudd, 32, was arrested 10 days 
after Lincoln was shot at Ford's Theater. He 
said he knew nothing of the killing when 
Booth arrived on horseback at his home in 
Waldorf, Md., 30 miles from Washington, 

Booth was executed on April 26. Mudd 
and seven other defendants were convicted. 

Mudd spent four years incarcerated at 
Fort Jefferson in the Gulf of Mexico, and 
won recognition for helping battle a yellow 
fever outbreak there. In March 1869, Presi- 
dent Andrew Johnson pardoned him. 

Richard Mudd has 
lobbied presidents, Con- 
gress and the military 
courts since his teens, 
and has won some 

President Eisenhower 
dedicated a monument to 
Mudd in Key West, Fla. 
Numerous state legisla- 
tures passed resolutions , . 
proclaiming the doctor's L |nct>l ": 
innocence. Presidents Issues linger 
Carter and Reagan wrote Richard Mudd 
that they were convinced the conviction was 
wrong, but said they could not set it aside. 


When 76-year-old comedian 
and erstwhile Polident spokes- 
woman Martha Raye married a 
man more than 30 years her ju- 
nior in September 1991, it was 
a union made in tabloid heav- 
en. The story became even 
more sensational when it was 
learned early this year that 
seven-time bride Raye, who 
suffered a severe stroke in 
1990, had revised her will 
— leaving her $2.4 million es- 
tate to groom Mark Harris, a 
self-styled promoter. Faster 
than Polident effervesces, es- 
tranged daughter Melodye 
Condos, 48 — who, as in previ- 
ous wills, was due to receive 
$ 1 — sued for conservatorship. 
The matter is still being 
thrashed out in court. Al- 
though she has suffered sever- 
al more strokes since the wed- 
ding, Raye was well enough to 
celebrate her anniversary this 
year with a small dinner at her 
Bel Air home and to press on 
with a suit against Bette 
Midler for allegedly co-opting 
her life story in For the Boys. 
Says the still feisty Raye: "I 
think they thought I was a gon- 
er after the strokes, but I'm 
here and I'm not planning on 
going anywhere." 


Last June, three months after 
rapper Ice-T released his first 
heavy-metal album, Body 
Count, he began to hear from 
harsh critics in high places. 
Claiming that the album's 
closing cut, "Cop Killer," en- 
couraged listeners to ape the 
lyrics and "dust some cops 
off," police organizations 
urged a boycott of products 
from Time Warner, parent 
company of Ice-T's label (and 
of PEOPLE). Sixty members of 
Congress as well as the Presi- 
dent and Vice President joined 
the chorus condemning the al- 
bum. A mediocre seller until 
then, Body Count became an 
instant collector's item and 
jumped into the Top 30 after 


"He's the best thing that ever happened to me," says Raye of Harris, 43. 

Ice-T urged his label to pull the 
album out of stores. (A second 
version, minus the offending 
cut, was released in October 
and sold 100,000 copies.) Now 
appearing in Universale new 
action film Trespass, he still 
performs the song in concert 
despite continuing protests. 
"All I'm doing," the rapper-ac- 
tor said about his "Killer" per- 
sona, "is playing a character." 

'I want everyone to know I put up a good fight," says Mudd. 

A controversial song put a 
rapper on the hot seat. 


While escaping from Ford's 
Theatre after shooting Abra- 
ham Lincoln, John Wilkes 
Booth broke his leg. The man 
who set it, Dr. Samuel Alexan- 
der Mudd, was later convicted 
of complicity in the assassina- 
tion and served four years in 
prison. For years, Mudd's de- 
scendants have fought to clear 
his name — arguing that he 
had had no inkling of his pa- 
tient's crime — and their most 
dogged member has been 
grandson Dr. Richard Mudd, 
91, who started campaigning 
66 years ago and got an Army 

board to set aside the convic- 
tion. But in July, the acting as- 
sistant secretary of the Army 
overturned that recommenda- 
tion. Predictably, Mudd has 
appealed and is, once again, 
waiting and hoping. 


It was a story Hollywood could 
have conjured up: A respected 
psychiatrist is charged with 
malpractice after a former pa- 
tient commits suicide. Tb make 
the tale juicier — and slea- 
zier — the family of the victim, 
Harvard medical student Paul 
Lozano, declared that Cam- 

People Weekly magazine, Jan. 4, 1993 



r ^a^n^^7o 

Mayfair Edition 

Main Office: 535-4274; Classfflsds: 342-0225; Circulation: 535-8999 

"Tk T* The Northeast ^^*\ "| 

News Gleaner 

Wednesday, Octobar 29, 1999/Vol 113, No 23 

A nationwide effort has local support 

Holmesburg's McNamara aids effort to clear Mudd's name 

■ Holmesburg resident George McNamara contributes to 
documentary detailing the events that led to the imprisoning 
of the man who set the broken leg of Lincoln assassin John 
Wilkes Booth. 

By David J. Foster 

Staff Writer 

"It would have been a tragedy in 
American history if we had not been 
able to record this- to preserve this- 
for future generations," said Dennis 

"I wouldn't say we're rewriting 
history," admitted Paul Davis. 
More accurately: They're seeking 
I justice. 

Dennis Fedoruk 
] caught the final 
I moments of a lo- 
I cal radio broad- 
cast. He grabbed 
I a pad and scrib- 
I bled two words: 
I Saginaw and 
I Mudd. "There 
I was such passion 

W»id«* m *" s v0 ' ce ' a 

passion to clear 

his grandfather's name. It was a 

story that needed to be told," said 

Fedoruk, a Civil War buff. 

And time is running out. 

The arduous 130-year-old battle is 
still rankling historians, lawyers, 
politicians, and the military. And 
whatever the final verdict, the con- 
troversy will linger. 

But Dr. Richard Mudd needs clo- 
sure. He wants to see his grandfa- 
ther's name officially cleared. Yet, 
at 94, Mudd knows the fight could 
likely endure long after he's gone. 

"It's why I visited him immedi- 
ately," Fedoruk said. "Fjveryone 
working on the production felt an 
urgency to finish it. Of course, I 
never let him know that, though I 
know he accepts it.* 

With the release of the documen- 
tary Rewriting History: The Case 
of Dr. Samuel Mudd, available on 
video through Light Vision, the torch 
has been passed to three former 
strangers, Fedoruk, a film producer, 
Davis, a writer and director; and 
George McNamara, the Holmesburg 
resident and unofficial spokesman 
for the Mudd family. 

An Innocent man 

After John Wilkes Booth, Dr. 
Samuel Mudd may be the most well- 
known of the convicted Lincoln as- 
sassination conspirators. Well- 
known because of his glaring inno- 

Hours after Booth's derringer 
discharged into the skull of 
President Lincoln, the killer, dis- 
guised and nursing a leg broken in 
the escape, stopped for medical aid 
at the home of Samuel Mudd. The 
doctor treated his patient unaware 
of the events at Ford's theater 
Mudd was subsequently arrested 
as a co-conspirator. 

Tried before a military tribunal, 
Mudd was convicted and sentenced 
to prison at the Dry Tortugas off 
Hay West, Florida Mudd wnnki lut. 


er be pardoned 
by President 
Andrew Johnson 
for his work 
handling a yel- 
low fever out- 
break at the 
prison, but his 
name was never 
cleared of con- 
spiring in the as- 


knew the story well. He's a native 

of Saginaw, Michigan, home of Dr. 
Richard Mudd, where the story has 
reached almost mythic propor- 

"I wanted to tell the facts," 
Davis said. 'I didn't want to be 
emotional." He wanted to film a 

When Fedoruk called Dr. Mudd 
and learned of Davis's script, *I 
knew we had to get married,* 
Fedoruk said. 

See Nationwide on page 3 

Nationwide effort to clean Mudd's 
name has support ofHolmesburg man 

/r™t<n<<aH Irnm nana 1\ -*• * *-' * — " 

(Continued Irom page 1) 

McNamara became one of the 
witnesses McNamara's Mudd 
newsletter travels the globe. 
"So far, the impact of the (film) 

! has been educational," said 
McNamara. "The responses I get 
are 'Wow, I never knew that. It 

. puts it in perspective' People are 
seeing this 1865 story in terms of 

; 1995." 

' Historic letters and photos 

Rewriting History tells the story 

through historic photos, diary en- 

. -tries, letters, and live interviews. 

Comparisons to Ken Burns' epic 

The Civil War are inevitable. 

"The Ken Burns' style is very 
common in documentary circles," 
Fedoruk said. "It's a proven tech- 
nique. The only thing we did dif- 
ferently was instead of salt-and- 
peppering interviews throughout, 
our interviews are at the end. We 
have a creative opening, present 
the facts, then the facts of the tri- 

On December 22, 1991, after a 
vigorous letter-writing campaign 
choreographed by McNamara, the 
Judge Advocate General of the 
Army ruled the Army Board of 
Correction of Military Records 
(ABCMR) could hear the case of 
Samuel Mudd. 

"We could have argued Mudd's 
guilt of innocence," McNamara 
said, "but we would have put the 
army on the spot." Instead, the 

Cjp f-^_ team assembled 

^^^^^^ by McNamara 
r ^& and Mudd ar- 
M gued two key 
•K Wf points: Mudd had 
r, a professional 
Jaw obligation to 

Z~ Zj \m treat Booth, and 
^■£* H his due iirocess 
fiNMi nghts a:, a citi- 
mnvjXH zen were violated 
Booth when tried before 
a military court 
In July 1992, the ABCMR ruled 
unanimously: The conviction should 
be set aside. 

But before the family could cele- 
brate, retiring Secretary of the 
Army William Clark, whose office 
must endorse the board' i judge- 
ments, reversed the decision. "It's 
hot the role of the ABCMR to at- 
tempt to settle historical dispute*, * 
■Clark wrote. 

dark's ruling is currently under 

"This is a case of a person's con- 
stitutional rights being denied," 
McNamara said, "how our govern- 
ment, perhaps for the need for swift 
justice, took some shortcuts." 

No outside funding 
; Fedoruk received no outside 
funding for the four-year project. 
C "When you add in all the labor 
time, we spent over $200,000 of our 
own money," tedoruk said. 
■ Rewriting HistSry is his compa- 
ny's first foray into historical docu- 
mentaries. For 20 years, Fedoruk's 
LightVision produced successful 
corporate training films, the "bread 
and butter" of production compa- 


Until now, the video has been 
sold exclusively through direct 
mail, earning a whopping 14 per- 
cent return. Most mail orders re- 
turns one to two percent. 

"It's changing (us) rapidly," 
Fedoruk said. "Rewriting History 
has been so successful we have sev- 
eral projects planned for 1996." 
Among them, a documentary on 
centenarians, people who have sur- 
vived to 100. 

LightVision hopes to sell the pro- 
gram to Public Broadcasting or a 
cable station like the Learning 
Channel, Discovery, Arts & 
Entertainment and its subsidiary, 
the History ChanneL 

"WHYY has it," said 
McNamara. "We're waiting to hear 
from them." 

The video can be purchased 
through LightVision by calling 

their toll-free number 1-800-521- 
5311. The video costs {19.95, plus 
shipping and handling. You can 
also write to George McNamara, 
at P.O. Box 5293, Philadelphia, 
PA, 19135 


A page out of history 

Fight to clear Civil War doctor's name nears an end 

Mudd family 
appeal gets 
July 25 date 

By Richard Willing 

The telephone rings and Dr. 
Richard Mudd comes on, nearly 
out of breath but not out of legal 

Mudd, 100, is calling to talk 
about his current federal appeals 
court case that seeks to overturn 
the 1865 - that's no misprint — 
conviction of his grandfather, Dr. 
Samuel Mudd, for aiding the assas- 
sin of President Abraham Lincoln. 

Mudd's brief in the ancient case 
is due at the court in Washington, 
D.C., July 25. And he wants to make 
it dear, between puffs on a respira- 
tor, that if he doesn't win the ap- 
peal, he'll fight the matter all the 
way to the Supreme Court. 

"I thought we should have won 
a long time ago." says Mudd, call- 
ing from his home in Saginaw, 
Mich. "But if we don't win, we're 
not going to stop fighting. Not after 
... so long a time." 

More than 136 years after the 
original Dr. Mudd's conviction, 1 1 8 
years after his death, and 10 years 
since the appeal was revived by 
his descendants, the Mudd case fi- 
nally may be entering its final in- 
nings. The federal government, 
which opposes the Mudd appeal, 
has asked the court to dismiss it 
quickly. That would send the 
Mudds to the Supreme Court, 
which declines to even consider 
about 99% of cases referred to it. 

Either way, the argument over 
the guilt or innocence of Mudd, 
who set Booth's broken left leg in 
the hours after the assassination, 
seems certain to continue. Mudd's 
descendants, led by Richard 
Mudd, are fighting off a growing 
number of researchers who sug- 
gest that the country doctor was, 
as historian James Hall says, "in it 
up to his eyes." 

And the appeals court's decision 
is unlikely to clear up what is per- 
haps the assassination tragedy's 
most enduring mystery: why 
Mudd's centenarian grandson con- 
tinues to spend precious breath 
and energy fighting for his grandfa- 
ther's exoneration. 

"Perseverance," says historian 

"Justice," says Thomas Mudd, 
the youngest of Richard Mudd's 
seven children. 

"A sense of family honor that 
you just don't find these days," 
says Mary Mudd McHale, Thomas' 

To Richard Mudd, the answer is 
perfectly obvious. 

"He was my grandfather," says 
Mudd of the man he never knew. 
"If he was your grandfather, would 
you leave him out there, falsely ac- 
cused, for all time?" 

Story told only in 'low voices' 

After shooting Lincoln on April 
14, 1865. Booth broke his left fib- 
ula leaping from the president's 
box to the stage at Ford's Theatre in 
Washington. Booth and an accom- 
plice, David Herold, then rode to 
Dr. Mudd's house nearby in south- 
ern Maryland. Mudd, who had 
met Booth at least twice in the 
previous year through fellow Con- 
federate sympathizers, set Booth's 
fracture, gave the assassins food 
and delayed reporting them to po- 

Tried with seven others before a 
tribunal of generals and colonels, 
Mudd claimed he did not recog- 
nize the disguised Booth but was 
found guilty of aiding the assassins, 
sentenced to life in prison, but par- 
doned four years later. He died in 

When Richard Mudd grew up in 
Washington, DC, around the turn 

Family honor at stake: Dr. Richard Mudd, at right with son Thomas, is in poor health at 1 00, but he's still determined to clear his grandfather. 

of the last century, his grandfa- 
ther's story was never discussed. If 
Sam Mudd's name came up, he re- 
members, adults went "into an- 
other room and talked in low 
voices." His father, an angry and 
distant man, once threatened to 
smash the window of a local store 
that had included Sam Mudd's pic- 
ture in a display on the assassina- 
tion. He was vaguely aware, Rich- 
ard Mudd recalls, of the existence 
of a dark "family secret." 

As a student at Georgetown Uni- 
versity in the early 1920s, he dis- 
covered a biography of his grandfa- 
ther, written by an aunt, that 
staked out what is still the pro- 
Mudd position: that Sam Mudd 
was an innocent country doctor 
caught up in the hysteria sur- 
rounding the assassination and 
punished by a vengeful nation. 

Richard Mudd was embarrassed 
- "what a blot on the family name" 
-and then angered. 

"I was going into medicine my- 
self, and I couldn't imagine being 
treated so brutally for doing a doc- 
tor's duty," he says. In the 1 930s, he 
began to petition state and federal 
officials to overturn Sam Mudd's 

His efforts sparked newspaper 
and magazine stories, radio and 
later television programs, and 
eventually the federal lawsuit that 
is currently on appeal. 

They also attracted the notice of 
a former teacher and Labor De- 
partment investigator named 
James Hall. Hall began researching 
the Mudd case shortly after World 
War II, in hope of furnishing Rich- 
ard Mudd with more proof of his 
grandfather's innocence. But as he 
dug, using trial testimony, investi- 
gators' notes, even 19th century 
maps and church records written 

in Latin, Hall concluded that "it was , 
no accident that Booth turned to 
Mudd" when he needed help. 

In Come Retribution, a 1988 book 
being republished in October, Hall 
argues his thesis: Mudd was part of 
a network of Confederate sympa- 
thizers recruited by Booth to kid- 
nap and hold Lincoln for ransom in 

the closing months of the Civil War. 
Mudd had nothing to do with Lin- 
coln's murder, but he clearly 
helped Booth escape, probably to 
conceal his involvement in the kid- 
nap plot. 

The two courtly gentlemen be- 
gan to dog each other's footsteps. 
When a sympathetic congressman 

offered a pro-Mudd resolution, the 
NAACP in his district received 
messages about the doctor's 
Southern sympathies, courtesy of 
Hall. In 1992, when an Army com- 
mission tried to reverse the con- 
viction, Hall filed a brief opposing 
the move. Later, when federal 
courts took up the matter, copies 

of Hall's research showed up i 
judges' chambers. 

The Mudds were not pleasei [ 
Richard Mudd accused Hall, no> j 
89, of using his family's "tragedy"t j 
"sell a few books." 

Another of Sam Mudd's granc 
children, Louise Mudd Arehar 
confronted Hall when he appeare 
at the old family farm leading 
tour group. She chased him o | 
with a broom. 

Jack McHale, a former FBI ager I 
and a Mudd by marriage, call j 
Hall's conclusions "conjecture. 
"Nobody can prove Dr. Mud 
knew Booth when he came to hi J 
house, and that's the key," sa> : 
McHale, who has written a pre 
Mudd book. "It's a bad case, a cas 
that no U.S. attorney would eve 
dare to bring . . . now." 

Appeal hangs on technicality 

As the case winds toward ii j 
conclusion, both Hall and Mud 
clairri vindication. 

Other researchers have followe 
Hall, and many agree with his the 
sis.AndtheMuddsnolongerargu | 
their ancestor's innocence quite s : 
vociferously. Their current appe; j 
hinges on a technicality -whetht j 
the 1 865 military commission w; 
empowered to try the civilia 
Mudd - rather than on his role i 
the crime. 

As for Richard Mudd, the long j 
time quest may not have cleare I 
his grandfather - yet - but it ha ' 
helped him redeem the famil 

A family genealogy, assemble 
by Richard Mudd to rally suppor 
for his grandfather's cause, depict 
a family of unquestioned probity 
Sam Mudd's descendants, mof 
than 650 strong and counting, in 
elude veterans of every war. i 
Mudd descendant died in the Ko 
rean conflict, and another serve 
as bodyguard to President Theo 
dore Roosevelt. 

At the head of that clan sits Rich 
ard Mudd, working out of a grouni 
floor bedroom in his 19th centur 
house, still dictating letters, plot 
ting strategy and clipping birth an 
nouncements of Sam Mudd' 
great-great-great-grandchildren, ii 
between occasional naps am : 
peeks at the History Channel. I 

Nearly 100 years later, the bo; j 
whose family harbored a damnin; j 
secret has disappeared. In his plac j 
sits a centenarian who says: 'Tn ; 
very proud that my name is Mudc j 

"Did you ever think you'd hea ' 
anybody say that?" ! - Print This Story - Leno Clears Up Muddy Facts Over Lincoln Assassin... Page 1 of 1 

Leno Clears Up Muddy Facts Over Lincoln Assassination 

POSTED: 2:17 pm CST February 22, 2006 
UPDATED: 2:30 pm CST February 22. 2006 

SAGINAW, Mich. — Late night talk show host Jay Leno said he's sorry 
for messing up Thomas Mudd's family history. 

Leno called him in Saginaw to personally apologize after Mudd pointed 
out his mistake involving his great-grandfather's role in the President 
Abraham Lincoln assassination. 

Dr. Samuel Mudd spent nearly four years in prison after setting John 
Wilkes Booth's broken leg. 

Related To Story 

Jay Leno 

AP Image 

The "Tonight Show" host said newsman Roger Mudd worked for years 

to clear his grandfather's name. But it really was Thomas Mudd's father who spent years seeking exoneration. Roger 

Mudd is a distant relative. 

Leno made the miscue in late January while interviewing actor Harrison Ford, who will begin filming "Manhunt," a 
movie about Lincoln's death. 

Copyright 2006 by The Associated Press All rights reserved This rnatehal may not be published, broadcast, rewhtten or redistributed. 


Mudd family name part of "National Treasure" - The Saginaw News - 

Page 1 of 2 

• Complete Forecast j Homepa; 



Everything Michigan 

1 BarikAmericard Rewards'" Visa® credit card 

"fl -No annual fee -More ways to redeem «No point limit 

Mote points on aim pufcn 


_ , The « T 

Saginaw News 

You know 
when we know! 

sponsoied b' 

S^ Arch Card 

SKS" MOM McDonald's 

■ About The Author 

■ irEgj | What's RSS' 

■ Subscribe to Newsletters 

Latest Posts 

■ Mudd family name part of 
"National Treasure" 

■ Heritage grad follows 
dream to stage 

■ Midland. Saginaw counties 
plow snow despite budget 

■ Speeders, beware 

■ Half those eligible receive 
free food 


■ Arson Trial (RSS) 

■ Breaking News (RSS) 

■ Business (RSS) 

■ College news (RSS) 

■ Community news (RSS) 

■ Court news (RSS) 

■ Daily photos (RSS) 

■ Deadly fire (RSS) 

■ Election (RSS) 

■ Entertainment (RSS) 

■ Events (RSS) 


■ Life Stories (RSS) 

■ Loons (RSS) 

• mid-Michigan (RSS) 

■ police news (RSS) 

■ Politics (RSS) 

■ school news (RSS) 

■ Today's Takes (RSS) 

■ Top Photos (RSS) 
» Top Stories (RSS) 

Mudd family name part of "National Treasure" 

Posted by Paul Wyche/The Saginaw News December 27, 2007 10:00AM 
Categories: Community news. Entertainment, Top Stories 

It's a quick anecdote for the main character of "National Treasure: Book of Secrets," 
but a reference at the beginning of the weekend blockbuster to the physician who 
set John Wilkes Booth's fractured leg is much more to a Saginaw historian 

Star Nicolas Cage explains how he must clear his ancestor's name so that it doesn't 
go down in infamy like Dr Samuel Mudd. 

After Booth shot President Abraham Lincoln in 1865, the assassin sought Dr Mudd 
for treatment Mudd maintained he had nothing to do with the plot to kill Lincoln, but 
even with a presidential pardon, Cage's character says that when people use the 
phrase "His name is mud," they aren't offering a compliment- 
Cage's character, Ben Gates, sets out to find a "Book of Secrets" that will prove his 
great-great grandfather is innocent of similar charges 

"I wish there was a 'Book of Secrets' that would reveal my (great-)grandfather had 
nothing to do with what happened to President Lincoln," said Thomas Mudd, great- 
grandson of Dr Mudd 

"National Treasure" doesn't treat the physician as a co-conspirator 

"They didn't rake him over the coals like they usually do," Mudd said 

"National Treasure," meanwhile, did rake in the dough during the holiday weekend, 
with a five-day total of $65 million, based on figures film distributor Disney 
announced Wednesday 

"The movie was actually fair, saying that despite circumstantial evidence and a 
presidential pardon, most people still link my grandfather with the assassination," 
Mudd said "I just wish they could have dug a little deeper into the assassination." 

The film is a family action-adventure romp aimed at drawing a big audience. Mudd 


— advei-tia 

8 In 

If you I 
to find 
by Fori 
Ken Fi: 





http:^ family name part of natio.html 


Muiid family name part of "National Treasure" - The Saginaw News - 

■ Traffic (RSS) is glad to see a picture that for the most part sticks up for his great-grandfather 

■ Weather (RSS) 

Favorite Links The film is showing at Saginaw 8. 3250 Kabobel off Tittabawassee in Kochville 

. Township; Midland Cinemas, 6540 Cinema in Midland; Goodrich Bay City 8, 4101 

• Today VTakes archive ^ Wilder in Bay City; and Cinema Hollywood, 12280 Dixie Highway in Birch Run 

'" l ' f "' ' ^° '"' Over the years, Mudd and his late father grabbed loads of attention in their efforts 

I 2] to clear Dr Mudd's name. 

In the movie, Ben Gates is doing the same - although neither Mudd resorted to 
kidnapping the president, as Cage's character does. 

Still, Thomas Mudd can relate to Gates' determination. He maintains his great- 
grandfather simply was in the wrong place at the wrong time. 

"It was the country's first assassination, and there was just so much hysteria at the 
time," Mudd said. 

C3 | Permalmk (Learn More) 

Share: Reddit | Digg | del icio us | Google | Yahoo | What is this? 

COMMENTS (O) Post a comment.. 

Comments are not active for this entry 

Pa S e 2 of 2 

Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement. Please read our Privacy Policy. 

Community Rules apply to all content you upload or otherwise submit to this site. Contact interactivity manageme 

©2007 All Rights Reserved. RSS Feeds | Complete, Index family name part of natio.html 

12/28/201)7 - The Monroe Evening News. Monroe, MI 


Article published at MonroeNews com on May 14. 2010 

A family fights accepted history 

Thomas Mudd continues his family's fight. 

Mr Mudd presented his case for justice at the Ellis Reference & Information Center Thursday, saying his great-grandfather was not an accomplice 

in President Abraham Lincoln's assassination 

Dr Samuel Mudd had a medical practice in his home just outside of Bryantown, Md On the night of President Lincoln's assassination, Dr Mudd 

set a man's fractured leg That man turned out to be Lincoln's assassin John Wilkes Booth. 

Because of this interaction, Dr. Mudd was sentenced to life in prison 

Family members have, for decades, disputed that sentence His grandson, Dr Richard Mudd, started a campaign for Justice After he died at the 

age of 102 in 2002, his son, Thomas, continued his campaign 

Thomas Mudd is a retired history teacher who has taught all over the world, from his hometown of Saginaw to Germany and Japan He is involved 

with the the Saginaw Historic District Commission, the Saginaw Valley Histonc Preservation Society and the Saginaw County Hall of Fame. 

Mr Mudd showed 20 slides his father used in presentations at the library Thursday. 

Slides ranged from Abraham Lincoln and his wife, to every person involved in his assassination The court's rulings, he said, were often unfair as to 

who was guilty and who was innocent. 

He emphasized his reasons for believing his great-grandfather's innocence. For example, Mr Mudd said that Dr Mudd didn't know it was John 

Wilkes Booth who arrived at his home with a broken leg. though they were acquaintances Mr Booth and David Herold used false names, Mr 

Mudd said, and Mr Herold did all of the talking Mr. Booth covered his face with a gray shawl. Dr Mudd, his great-grandson said, did not hear 

about the assassination until the next morning, when he expressed sincere shock about the tragic death of the president 

Mr Mudd said the courts ignored certain evidence and used the conviction of Dr Mudd to set an example They wanted to punish a white 

aristocrat, Mr. Mudd said. 

Or Mudd's home is part of a 1 2-hour tour of Mr. Booth's escape route through Washington, DC , Maryland and Virginia. 

To learn more about this point in history, Mr. Mudd recommended several books: "Blood on the Moon," "Man Hunt" and "American Brutus," 

These books offer different sides to the story. 

"I want you to keep an open mind." Mr Mudd said 

Steve Miesch watched the presentation and shared with the audience that he had gone on the Booth tour and has been to Fort Jefferson where he 

saw Dr Mudd's prison cell. 

"I thought his presentation was excellent," Mr. Miesch said of Mr Mudd, 

He said that while Mr Mudd made his views obvious, he let the audience form their own opinions 

Mary Lassey also enjoyed the presentation. 

"He had the nght amount of humor and passion," she said 

Charmaine Wawrzyniec coordinated Mr Mudd's visit to Monroe after hearing of him at one of the library's civil war roundtables Mr Mudd regularly 

gives presentations on the topic, but not as frequently as his father once did He hopes to wnte a book about his dad's lifelong campaign. 

"Mudds are still in the trenches," he said "We are still battling." 


5/17/2010 9:25 AM The Monroe Evening News, Monroe, MI 


News Entertainment Sports Obi t u a n e s Cla s sifieds features Contribute Shop ping Subscribe Links eEdilion About Us Subrai 

5/17/2010 9:26 AM 

Descendants of doctor tied to Lincoln assassination visit his Fort Jeff... 

ShelBiami Herald 

Posted on Sat, Jul. 17, 2010 


Descendants of doctor tied to Lincoln assassination visit 
his Fort Jefferson cell 


Inside the six-sided brick fortress built on a 
remote island in the Florida Keys, 50 people 
wearing matching yellow T-shirts that say, 
"Free Dr. Mudd," crammed into the dark 

flbjk Wt "* They are descendants - proud descendants 

™ __■>. *^* ; j -- of Samuel A. Mudd, the full-time tobacco 

| grower, part-time country doctor who was 
( imprisoned at Fort Jefferson for his role in 
' iJ~) )J0k 4 \ i one of America's most infamous crimes: the 

^ a "^ l ^^^rct«S.lTESirsT*F assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. 

John McHale a great-great grandson of Samuel A Mudd . t ._ „ t i__„t ( u„ „ „i,n, rj jj c _:i 

took his family (wife Michelle and daughters Samantha and B S at leaSt the ei 9 hth Mudd famil V excursion 

Sarah) to Fort Jefferson to the National Park that is a 2 K- hour ferry 

ride from Key West. But this is the first in 19 
years, and the first without Dr. Richard Mudd. who spent a lifetime petitioning presidents 
and Congress and battling the military and the courts to exonerate his grandfather, who 
died before he was born. 

Richard Mudd kept up the effort until his death in 2002 at age 101. Legal recourse ended 
the next year when the family lawyer missed a filing deadline with the U.S. Supreme Court. 

"We're done," said Thomas Mudd, who helped his father Richard in his efforts for 
exoneration. "Once you miss the Supreme Court filing deadline, you'd have to go back 
and start in the lower courts again. I don't think there is any way we can get in." 

But Thomas Mudd said the family is far from done in defending Samuel Mudd. They 
believe Mudd wasn't a conspirator, just a country doctor following his oath by setting the 
broken leg of Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth. 

"We're here today to keep the story alive for our family," said Thomas Mudd, a historian. 
"We want the younger family members to know that we come from a special kind of 

Samuel Mudd, who had nine kids before dying in 1883 at 49, now has about 800 
descendants. Four generations, aged 6 months to 81 years, made the trip to Fort 
Jefferson. They came from seven states, with some meeting for the first time. 

7/20/2010 9:57 AM 

Descendants of doctor tied to Lincoln assassination visit his Fort Jeff... 

Mary McHale, a great-granddaughter of Samuel Mudd, made her first pilgrimage to the 
fort-turned-prison in 1947 with her father, Richard, and two brothers. 

"I remember looking for sharks in the moat because of the 1936 movie The Prisoner of 
Shark Island," McHale said. "It starred Warner Baxter as Dr. Mudd." 

John McHale, Mary's son, said there definitely is some family resemblance to the man in 
the well-known black-and-white photo of Samuel Mudd. 

McHale lifted his cap, saying: "The Mudd men have receding hairlines." 

He brought his wife and two young girls to the fort. Samantha McHale, 9, said she hasn't 
been taught about Mudd in school yet but does know about him from her family. 

"Dr. Sam Mudd was the only person in the fort who knew about yellow fever, so he took 
over all the yellow fever stuff," she said. 

Samuel Mudd was convicted of conspiracy 145 years ago and sentenced to life in prison - 
missing hanging by only one vote on the nine-person military tribunal. 

But he served only four years at Fort Jefferson before being pardoned by President 
Andrew Jackson for his heroic work treating yellow fever patients after the fort's doctor and 
nurses died during an outbreak. 

Still, Mudd's name remained mud. Richard Mudd always claimed Samuel Mudd's 
innocence and also claimed he should never had been tried in a military tribunal since he 
was a civilian. 

Along the way, he won some powerful allies, including Presidents Ronald Reagan and 
Jimmy Carter and U.S. Sens. Paul Simon, John Glenn and Joseph Biden. 

"It was the sense of injustice," said Stella Thelen, 64, one of Richard Mudd's seven 
children. "He couldn't understand why a doctor was imprisoned for setting the leg of 

Historians have debated the role of Mudd, a seventh-generation slave owner, who had 
previously met Booth. 

At 4 a.m., a few hours after Booth shot Lincoln in the head at Ford's Theater in 
Washington, Booth and accomplice David Herold showed up at Mudd's farmhouse about 
30 miles away. At first, Mudd told investigators he didn't recognize Booth, who was wearing 
a disguise. 

Booth was killed 1 1 days later during the manhunt. Many of Mudd's descendants believe 
Samuel Mudd was a scapegoat. 

"It was a rush-to-judgment kind of thing," Thelen said. "If you can imagine right after 9/11 
or the Kennedy assassination, how people were anxious to find a person or group to blame 
and punish them." 

Mudd and seven other accused co-conspirators were tried just 25 days after the 
assassination. Four were sentenced to death and four got life in prison. 

7/20/2010 9:57 AM 

Descendants of doctor tied to Lincoln assassination visit his Fort Jeff... 

The Mudd family's legal battle made it all the way to the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals in 
the District of Columbia, the highest court before the U.S. Supreme Court. 

In 2001, during the start of the hearing, Thomas Mudd said one of the judges stopped the 

"It was a shocker," Thomas Mudd said. "We can't hear this case because Dr. Mudd 
wasn't in the military. So get this. He can be tried in a military court. He can be convicted in 
a military court. But he can't appeal a military court conviction because he's not in the 
military. That's called a Catch 22." 

While the family can't officially get Samuel Mudd exonerated, they can keep his memory 
alive through his descendants. 

Conor McHale, Mary's grandson, gives tours at the Samuel A. Mudd House Museum in 
Waldorf, Md. 

Said Thomas Mudd: "My dad worked so hard to clear the Mudd name, and we're just 
trying to carry on his tradition." 

© 2010 Miami Herald Media Company. All Rights Reserved. 

7/20/2010 9:57 AM